since then the changes for the occupations in this group has been small The

Since then the changes for the occupations in this

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since then, the changes for the occupations in this group has been small. The number of university lecturers and upper secondary school teachers did, however, rise to a small extent, as did the number of computer specialists. At the same time, there was a drop in the number of managers at smaller companies and units.When we compare the changes to the employment structure after the financial crisis of the 1990s and the financial crisis of 2008/2009, it is clear that during the first crisis, it was primarily low-paid jobs in care provision and, to some extent, jobs in the low and middle segment in other occupational areas that disappeared. High-waged jobs continued to grow, although at a slower pace than before. The difference following the 2008/2009 financial crisis is that it resulted in the loss of many middle-income jobs in the industrial sector.International job polarisationInternationally, the Swedish trend reflects what is happening in the USA and the rest of Europe. In the USA, the job-polarising trend has, however, been underway longer than in Sweden. In the 1980s, growth in employment in the USA resulted in a higher skills level with increased demand for greater occupational competence. There was an increase in occupations requiring a lower level of education, as well as occupations relying on longer education.During the 1990s, the trend changed to a polarisation of employment, as jobs requiring higher education grew rapidly, as did jobs with low education requirements, while the middle segment experienced a fall in employment. During the period 1999–2007, the number of low-skilled jobs continued to increase while the number of people employed in the middle segment continued to fall. The percentage of jobs with a high skills requirement also fell slightly during this period. Consequently, the labour market in the USA has undergone a clear polarisation over the past 20 years, dividing into highly-skilled, high-paid jobs and low-skilled, low-paid jobs. Employment in traditional and relatively well-paid jobs in the middle segment has fallen substantially over several decades.The 2008 financial crisis reduced total employment in the USA dramatically, giving a further boost to the polarisation of jobs. The long-term consequences of the financial crisis, even when employment has recovered, may, therefore, be a continued increase in the gap between income groups when demand for people with a high level of education increases and demand for workers in the middle segment continues to fall.Job polarisation in EuropeThe trend towards job polarisation can be seen in all industrialised economies in Europe. During the period 1993–2010, the proportion of middle-wage occupations fell in all 16 European countries included in the survey.
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