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SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS: Believe in Aswang, Dwende, Kapre, Tikbalang,Patyanak/Tiyanak. They also believe in magical power of amulet and charmssuch as anting-anting, kulam and gayuma or love potion. ECONOMIC LIFE:Agriculture in the plane lands: planting of rice, corn, banana,coconut, sugar canes and other kinds of vegetable and fruits. Hunting in highlands. Fishing in river banks and sea. Shipbuilding, weaving, poultry, mining andlumbering. Domestic trade of different barangays by boat. Foreign trade withcountries like Borneo, China, Japan, Cambodia, Java, and Thailand. LANGUAGE AND SYSTEM OF WRITING: Major languages: Tagalog, Ilocano,Pangasinan, Pangpangan, Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Magindanaw and
Samarnon this language is originated from the Malayo-Polenisian language.System of writing: the alphabets consisted of 3 vowels and 14 consonants calledBaybayi. They used tap of tress as ink and pointed stick as pencil. They wrote onlarge plant leaves, bark of a tree or bamboo tubes. WORSHIP OF THE TAGALOGS-No temples-Simbahan- temple or place of adoration-Pandot or a festival celebrated-Sibi-Sorihile-NagaanitosIDOLS-Bathala-Lic-ha-Dian masalanta (patron of lovers and of generation)-Lacapati and Idianale (patrons of cultivated lands and of husbandry)-Tala-Seven little goats (the Pleiades)-Mapolon (change of seasons)-Balatic (greater Bear)-Buaya-Tigmamanuguin –bird-No established division of years, months, and days-Catolonan (officiating priest)-Offerings and sacrifices-Belief on bearingchildDISTINCTIONS AMONG THE PRIESTS OF THE DEVIL1.Catalonan2.Mangangauay (witches)3.manyisalat4.mancocolam5.Hocloban
6.Silagan7.Magtatangal8.Osuang9.Mangagayoma10. Sonat11. Pangatahojan12. Bayoguuin-manner of burying the dead of the tagalogs-manner of burying dead of the Aetas or Negrillos-maca-casanaan-sitan-tigbalaang-patianacContent Analysis:The document was the product of Juan de Plasencia’s observation thus thedocument could be partially biased and opinionated based on the observations andjudgments of Juan de Plasencia. In a review with regards to the document of SherwinMapanoo, Plasencia was tasked by the King of Spain to document the customs andtraditions of the colonized (“natives”) based on, arguably, his own observations andjudgments. Notably, de Plasencia wrote the Doctrina Cristiana, an early book oncatechism and is believed to be the first book ever printed in the Philippines. Suchinitiatives were an accustomed practice of the colonizer during the Age of Discovery toenhance their superiority over the colonized and validity of their so-called duties andlegacies to the World. It is a common fact that during this era, the Spanish colonizers,spearheaded by missionaries, drew a wide variety of texts ranging from travel narrativesand accounts of the colony to even sermons.In this particular text, de Plasencia tried to avoid discussing the “conflictingreports of the Indians” through an “informed observation” to obtain the “simple truth.”This “truth,” however, is debatable, and the manner of how he actually arrived to hisreports is even more problematic. The text foregrounds two important figures: the