incorporated as Philippine law, and as an adjunct of the principle of state immunity from suit.Doctrine of Hot PursuitUnder this doctrine if an offense is committed by a foreign merchant vessel within the territorial waters of the coastal State or if the coastal State has good reasons to believe that such an offense had been committed, the said state vessel may pursue the offending vessel and upon capture bring it back to its territory for punishment.Doctrine of Unequal TreatiesTreaties which have been imposed (through coercion or duress) by a State of unequal character is void.Doctrine of Jus CogensStates that customary international law has the status of peremptory norm of international law, accepted and recognized by the international community of states as a rule from which no derogation is permitted. Accordingly, a treaty whose provisions contravene such international norms or rules may be invalidated.
Political law and Public International law10Doctrine of State Responsibility for Injury to aliensA state is under the obligation to make reparations to the other state for the failure to fulfill its primary obligation to afford in accordance with international law, the proper protection due to the alien national of the latter state. The state may therefore be held liable for the injuries and damages sustained by the alien while in the territory of the state if;i.the act or omission constitutes an international delinquencyii.the act or omission is directly or indirectly imputable to the stateiii.injury to the claimant state indirectly because of damages to its nationals.Doctrine of Effective Nationality This principle is expressed in Art. 5, of the Hague Convention of 1930 on the Conflict of Nationality Laws as follows:Art.5. Within a third State, a person having more than one nationality shall be treated as if he had only one. Without prejudice to the application of its law in matters of personal status and of any convention in force, a third State shall, of the nationalities which any such person possesses, recognize exclusively in its territory either the nationality of the country with which in the circumstances he appears to be in fact most closely connected.Pacta Sunt ServandaEvery treaty in force is binding upon the parties and must be performed by them in good faith. This applies despite hardships on the contracting State, such as conflict between the treaty and its Constitution.Rebus Sic Stantibus A party is not bound to perform a treaty if there has been afundamental change of circumstances since the treaty was concluded. It has been described as the exception to the rule on pacta sunt servanda. The principle justifies the non-performance of a treaty obligation if the subsequent condition in relation to which the parties contracted has changed so materially and unexpectedly as to create a situation in which the exaction of performance would be unreasonable.