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routines lead to embedded organisational culture which is manifested in a “the way things are done here” mind-set. In some instances, it may be more useful to have people involved with the changes to be implemented than to spend too much time in educating and communicating on the need and benefits of change. Levers for change come in the following forms: 1.Symbolic change–people working in organisation take in symbolic cues in their day-to-day work. These symbols are important as people make sense of what they do as they go about their daily activities. The following are ways symbols can act as levels for change: Rituals –the types of rituals in organisations can be seen in Table 14.2 (page 480 of Johnson et al (2014)). Such rituals play an important part in change management. Physical –changing the logo or colour scheme and office layout is an example of a symbolic change. Such changes are common when one organisation acquires another and integrates the two organisations. Managers’ behaviour and language –managers driving the change need to “walk the talk” when driving change. For example a top manager espousing frugality needs to also practice it in moderating his own work-related expenses. 2.Power and political systems–these systems are often powerful levers for change. Table 14.3 (page 481 of Johnson et al (2014)) highlights the mechanisms of acquiring resources, associating with powerful stakeholders and building alliances. These mechanisms can be used to build power bases, overcoming resistance and achieving compliance in leveraging change. 3.Change tactics–these are more specific techniques for leveraging change. There are two approaches: One of such a tactic is that of timing for the change. An example is that of using a takeover threat as a lever for strategic change. Other tactics associated with timing involves seizing windows of opportunities and the symbolic framing of the time frames for change. Another tactic is to achieve short term wins to galvanise support for ongoing and more radical change. Such quick successes accord creditability and will also enable the change managers to acquire more resources to focus on areas where more immediate change is needed.
BUS488 STUDY UNIT 6 CHAPTER 2SU6-C2-8 Think of an organisation you are familiar with, and identify at least three important symbols and rituals in the organisation. Find out more on Yahoo! Inc. CEO Marissa Mayer moved in February 2013 to end work from home arrangements for Yahoo! Employees. Is this a significant change lever? Chapter 14, pages 475 –482 of Johnson et al (2014). To what extent will you agree that changing an organisation’s rituals and symbols will be effective in change in organisations? Chunk Lecture SU6 Chapter 2.2 (Access video via iStudyGuide) MANAGING STRATEGIC CHANGE PROGRAMMES In this section, we revisit the types of strategic changediscussed earlier. Recall that there are four types of strategic change shown in Figure 14.4 (page 483 of Johnson et al (2014)). Here we focus on three types of changes, namely, a turnaround