Massive, worldwide production o Brazil: 31% o India: 21% o E.U.: 12% World consumption (2010-2011) o 165 billion kg o 23 kg (51 lbs) per capita Sucrose consumption/person/year World o 1000: 0 kg o 1600: 0.5 kg o 1700: 1.8 kg o 1800: 8.2 kg United States o 1830: 22.7 kg o 1890: 40.8 kg o 1987: 49.9 kg o 1999: 71.7 kg o 2003: 64.4 kg o 2010: 40 kg In the 1990s, Cuba led all countries consuming about 80 kg per person per year The lowest is in China with 7 kg per person per year. Brazil now has the highest per capita sugar consumption (61 kg) High Fructose Corn Syrup: corn starch is made of a polymer of glycose – enzymes are used to break this down into single units of glucose o Alpha-amylase o Glucoamylsage Amylases break down corn into glucose o Glucose-isomerase Converts glucose into fructose Even more sweet = HFCS
Chemistry of food High fructose corn syrup can be up to 90% fructose o Relative sweetness (by taste) Sugar (sucrose): 1.0 Glucose: 0.8 Fructose: 1.5 Corn syrup: 0.8 HFSC (55%): 1.1 HFCS (90%): 1.4 o Obesity and high fructose corn syrup: obesity is increasing with increasing HFCS consumed o HFCS consumption is increasing, cane and beet sugar consumption is decreasing Sugar content o Coca Cola: 9% o Ice Cream: 21% o Ketchup: 29% o Salad dressing: 30% o Chocolate bar: 51% o Shake and Bake: 51% o Coffee Mate: 65% o Jello (in package): 85% Sucrose content o Sugar orange crisp: 68% o Grape nut flakes: 3% o Shredded wheat: 1% Ingredient: sugar and/or glucose-fructose, honey, etc. Sugar (%) Sodium (mg) Corn flakes 5 290 Rice crispies 7 170 Sugar Frosted flakes 41 170 Total (mean) 8 340 Cheerios 3 270 All bran 19 310 Frosted mini wheats 26 10 Shreded wheat 1 5 Diet drinks, diet plus drinks (vitamins and minerals added) Maltodextrin, Barley Malt extract, vegetable glycerin, brown rice syrup, glycerin, sorbitol are types of sugar founds on food labels Yankee stadium o 1923: 58,000 o 1927: 82,000
Chemistry of food o 1976: 54,000 o North Americans no longer fit in the past small seats Effect of sugar on o In the presence of S. mutans (present in mouth of everyone), sugar transforms into lactic acid which degrades the teeth (cavities) o The gene responsible for this has been removed in the modified S. mutans o Ex: lollipops and lifesavers with 98% sucrose o S. mutans causes 85% of mouth cavities High fructose drinks linked with gout risk in women o Excess fructose creates uric acid increase, which inflames joints (gout): feet, ankles, knees, hands, wrists and elbows o During 22 years of follow-up, they documented 778 confirmed incident cases of gout. o Compare with consumption of less than 1 serving per month of sugar-sweetened, the multivariate relative risk of gout for 1 serving per day was 1.74 and for 2 servings or more per day is 2.39. o The corresponding relative risks for orange juice were 1.41. o The absolute risk differences corresponding to these relative risks were 36 and 68 cases per 100,000 person-years for sugar-sweetened soda.
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- Spring '11