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Unformatted text preview: What happens to Δ G when Δ S goes down ? WHY? Δ G INCREASES AS Δ S DECREASES. AS DISORDER DECREASES (SINCE THAT IS NOT THE NATURAL TENDANCY OF PROCESSES) SPONTANEITY WILL BECOME LESS LIKELY. Why does decomposition of a dead animal happen in terms of energy? What would happen if we increase temperature? Why do we freeze food? Decomposition is the breakdown of ordered cells into disorder. It should happen naturally Δ G is negative . We freeze our food to LOWER TEMPERATURE, which also increases Δ G. This slows down decomposition. AT lower temperatures there is less kinetic energy, molecules move slower and therefore decomposition slows down. Explain the process of energy coupling. Give an example. Using exergonic (catabolic) reactions to fuel endergonic (anabolic) reactions. The breakdown of glucose (exergonic) to form ATP from ADP & P (endergonic). The breakdown of ATP (exergonic) to do cell work. What would be the overall change in free energy if an enzyme where to couple the energy released from ATP to the production of Lglutamine from Lglutamic acid and ammonia? Would the reaction be spontaneous? What does spontaneous mean? Δ G = 3.9 kcal/mol The reaction is spontaneous. Explain why plant cells need light energy to build sugar (in terms of energy). Building sugar is anabolic. Anabolic reactions are endergonic and thus require energy. An input of free energy is needed to generate order. Population Growth Questions Formulas: Rate Population Growth Exponential Growth Logistic Growth dY/dt dN/dt = B – D N r dt dN max = Ο Π Ξ Μ Ν Λ − = K N K N r dt dN max dY = amount of change B = birth rate D = death rate N = population size K = carrying capacity r max = maximum per capita growth rate of population Notes dt dN = t N Δ Δ = time in change size population in change = population growth rate Example 1: There are 300 falcons living in a certain forest in 2013. In 2014 there are 60 falcons born and 30 falcons that die. a. What is the population growth rate (include units)? Interpret the value. dN/dt = B – D = 60 – 30 = 30 falcons/year. Each year the falcon population will increase by 30 falcons. b. What is the per capita growth rate of the falcons over a year? Interpret the value. N r dt dN max = so 30 = r max 300 so r max = .10 The falcon population will increase by 10% each year. c. Fill in the table and construct a graph. Year Population 2013 300 2014 330 2015 363 2016 399.3 2017 439.23 2018 483.153 d. Find the average rate of change for the falcon population from 2013 to 2018 (include units). Interpret the value. We have two data points: (2013, 300) and (2018, 483). Average rate of change = slope 6 . 36 2013 2018 300 483 = − − = Δ Δ = x y slope falcons/year. Over the past five years, the falcon population has increased by 36.6 per year on average. Example 2: Kentwood, Michigan had a population of 49,000 in the year 2013. The infrastructure of the city allows for a carrying capacity of 60,000 people. r max = .9 for Kentwood....
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 Fall '11
 Boyle
 Biology, Population Ecology, Lefthandedness, Zygosity

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