When you plan out a meal leptin is released from fat

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When you plan out a meal, leptin is released from fat cells and sends a signal to your brain to let you know you’re full and to stop eating Ghrelin Spurs appetite Appetite stimulator Released from the stomach and when elevated, it sends a signal to your brain letting you know you’re hungry and it’s time to eat Age, Gender, Blood Glucose, and leptin levels affect ghrelin levels o Factors Lessening Leptin’s Effectiveness Genetics: the ‘ob’ gene mutation can also abnormally low leptin levels leading to overeating and low metabolism Overeating over time can cause hypothalamus to become less sensitive to leptin Chronic fructose consumption (Ex: soft drinks, candy bars, sweetened foods) leads to leptin insensitivity Sleep deprivation, especially combined with stress, lowers leptin levels Sleep deprivation also increase ghrelin levels, making us hungrier (even after one night) o Environmental Influences on Weight
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Genetics alone can’t explain why rates of overweight and obesity are rising in recent years Rates are increasing among all: Social classes Ethnicities Ages Five Major Environmental Influences Increased abundance of inexpensive fast food and processed food Increased consumption of high-calorie sugary sodas (‘addiction’ due to stimulation of brain’s reward system) Sedentary Lifestyles Increased Portions Availability of highly varied foods Eating Disorders o Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are the best-known eating disorder o They occur mostly among young white women, but also occur in men and in older individuals o Factors Influencing Eating Disorders: Genetic and Cultural Factors But psychological causes play a major role, such as: Depression Anxiety Perfectionism Distorted body image Love, Sex, and Attachment Psychology of Love Two strong predictors of whom people will love are: o Proximity – we tend to choose our lovers and friends from the people who live, study, or work near us o Similarity – in looks, beliefs, values, personality, and interests Assortative mating: people tend to match up with people who are similar to them in these way Love and Attachment o When in love, people form different kinds of attachments o Attachment Theory vies adult love relationship, like those of infants being secure, avoidant, or anxious Secure: Rarely jealous or worried about abandonment Anxious: Agitate and worried partner will leave Avoidant: Distrustful, avoids intimate attachments There is a longitudinal study since 1975 and looked at relationship with parents, and this study continues on and on o Effect of Early Attachment Relationships People who are treated poorly early in life and lack secure attachments may have some problems with committed relationship as adults As children: trouble regulating negative emotions
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As teenagers: trouble dealing with and recovering from conflict with peers
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