oThe failure of academic scholarship and mainstream research to “give voice” to women’s activities, experiences, and perspectives provoked early feminist scholars and researchers to seek remedies for these omissions. These remedies included the reworking of traditional theoretical and methodological techniques and the creation of new research models altogether.6.What is the difference between positivismand feminist empiricism?The positivistic paradigm assumes we can scientifically discover the rules governing social life. oFeminist paradigms, in addition to drawing attention to the oppression of women in most societies, highlight how previous images of social reality have often come from and reinforced the experiences of men.7.How different is feminist research from mainstream social science research?oSome feminists researchers and scholars reject the concept of “objectivity altogether” Some feminist scholars like Sandra Harding embrace “strong objectivity” Researchers and scholars who practice “strong objectivity” do not begin from a position of so-called value neutrality. Theyhave a clear political and social commitment to strengthening the truthfulness and objectivity ofknowledge claims—in other words, to taking the voices and experiences of the silenced and marginalized into account.oFeminist empiricists seek to produce stronger, more objective, more truthful results through including women in their research studies and by documenting women’s lives and experiences that have been previously marginalized or left out of dominant knowledge canons altogether. oThis feminist epistemological framework offers a new form and application of inquiry that is necessarily inclusive of, and pays close attention to, elements such as personal experience, subjectivity, positionality, worldview, and emotion. The longstanding belief in an objective reality that abides by rational rules has been challenged by some contemporary theorists and researchers. They point out that it is possible to agree on an “intersubjective” reality. In the traditional image of science, scientists proceed from theory to operationalization, to observation. However, this image is not an accurate picture of how scientific research is actually done.Fundamentals of Social Research, pp. 41-571.List and define the three elements of the traditional model of science and illustrate with an example how these elements are related to research.
oTraditional model of science: “scientific method” threemain elements typically presented in a chronologicalorder: THEORY, OPERATIONALIZATION andOBSERVATION. oTheory: According to the traditional model ofscience, scientists begin with a theory fromwhich they derive testable hypotheses. (whatare we researching) oOperationalization: Operationalization literally means specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable. The concrete and specific definition of something in
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- Fall '17