Impaired immune functions Higher risk of disease and infection Inability to

Impaired immune functions higher risk of disease and

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Impaired immune functions Higher risk of disease and infection Inability to regulate temperature Weight gain (or severe weight loss) Organ failure Death - Fatal Familial Insomnia Rare genetic disorder Mutation on dominant autosomal gene—highly heritable (about 50% if a parent is effected) Affects mainly thalamus Partial Sleep Deprivation - Negative effects most pronounced when: Getting< 5hours sleep a night form many nights, and Working on a long, difficult, monotonous task - Studies show most people don’t recognize they’re impaired (rate their performance higher than non-deprived) Sleep Disorders - Insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, somnambulism, REM behavior disorder, sleep phase disorder. Insomnia - Problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early - Causes include: stress, anxiety, emotional problems, substance use, medical conditions, bad sleep habits. - Treatments include medication (people often soon depend on the medication) Somnambulism - Occurs more often during non-REM sleep than REM sleep (paralyzed in REM) - Usually in the first two hours during slow-wave sleep - Danger from accidents airing sleepwalking - Unwanted or violent acts REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) - Acting out dreams during REM sleep (no paralysis) - May hurt themselves or others - Mostly in middle-aged elderly men - Cause: deterioration of brainstem structures that inhibit movement during REM Sleep Phase Disorders - DSPD: Delayed sleep phase disorder
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Sleep and wake much later than usual Can disrupt professional life - ASPD: Advanced sleep phase disorder Sleep and wake much earlier than usual Can disrupt social life - Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder Cycle is longer than 24 hours Free-running (non-entrained) circadian rhythm Narcolepsy - Irresistible sleep ‘attacks’ - Fall immediately into REM - Cataplexy - Proposed cause: degeneration in neurons in hypothalamus Sleep, Learning, and Memory - Sleep assists with memory consolidation Learning results in physical changes at synapses To remember what was learned, those changes need to become stable and durable Long term storage; transfer of stored memories from hippocampus to cortex Also plays a role in weakening synaptic connections that are not needed - REM and slow-wave sleep(SWS) are especially important REM and SWS deprivation have strong rebound effects People perform better on tasks they’ve learned, and remember more, if they’ve had a chance to get sleep in between (especially important) The same effects are NOT seen if the same time passes, but there is no sleep In one study, creative insights also occurred more after SWS (Wagner et al., 2004) Why Dream? - Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) The royal road to the unconscious Reflect unconscious conflicts and wishes Symbolic—latent content Other Accepted Models of Dreaming - Problem solving model Dreams reflect our waking concerns They help us find creative solutions to our problems and resolve emotional issues - Cognitive model
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