Impaired immune functionsHigher risk of disease and infectionInability to regulate temperatureWeight gain (or severe weight loss)Organ failureDeath -Fatal Familial InsomniaRare genetic disorderMutation on dominant autosomal gene—highly heritable (about 50% if a parent is effected)Affects mainly thalamusPartial Sleep Deprivation-Negative effects most pronounced when:Getting< 5hours sleep a night form many nights, andWorking on a long, difficult, monotonous task-Studies show most people don’t recognize they’re impaired (rate their performance higher than non-deprived)Sleep Disorders-Insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, somnambulism, REM behavior disorder, sleep phase disorder.Insomnia-Problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early-Causes include: stress, anxiety, emotional problems, substance use, medical conditions, bad sleep habits.-Treatments include medication (people often soon depend on the medication)Somnambulism-Occurs more often during non-REM sleep than REM sleep (paralyzed in REM)-Usually in the first two hours during slow-wave sleep-Danger from accidents airing sleepwalking-Unwanted or violent actsREM Behavior Disorder (RBD)-Acting out dreams during REM sleep (no paralysis)-May hurt themselves or others-Mostly in middle-aged elderly men-Cause: deterioration of brainstem structures that inhibit movement during REMSleep Phase Disorders-DSPD: Delayed sleep phase disorder
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Sleep and wake much later than usual Can disrupt professional life-ASPD: Advanced sleep phase disorderSleep and wake much earlier than usualCan disrupt social life-Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorderCycle is longer than 24 hoursFree-running (non-entrained) circadian rhythmNarcolepsy -Irresistible sleep ‘attacks’-Fall immediately into REM-Cataplexy-Proposed cause: degeneration in neurons in hypothalamusSleep, Learning, and Memory-Sleep assists with memory consolidationLearning results in physical changes at synapsesTo remember what was learned, those changes need to become stable and durableLong term storage; transfer of stored memories from hippocampus to cortexAlso plays a role in weakening synaptic connections that are not needed-REM and slow-wave sleep(SWS) are especially importantREM and SWS deprivation have strong rebound effectsPeople perform better on tasks they’ve learned, and remember more, if they’ve hada chance to get sleep in between (especially important) The same effects are NOT seen if the same time passes, but there is no sleepIn one study, creative insights also occurred more after SWS (Wagner et al., 2004)Why Dream?-Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)The royal road to the unconsciousReflect unconscious conflicts and wishesSymbolic—latent contentOther Accepted Models of Dreaming-Problem solving modelDreams reflect our waking concernsThey help us find creative solutions to our problems and resolve emotional issues-Cognitive model
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