162 1 7 490 an individual is expected to pay an extra

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1.62 1 7 490 An individual is expected to pay an extra sum of money to the doctor in order to receive good care, despite all official fees having already been paid. 1.97 1 7 503 A public official demands a fee to perform a duty that is actually part of his/her work. 2.51 1 7 501 Greed Corruption: An entrepreneur offers a gift or service to a public servant in con- nection with a procurement process. 4.85 1 7 511 A politician lets his decision making be influenced by lobby groups that offer him free trips. 4.90 1 7 521 An organization gains influence over the policy process thanks to its funding of a particular political party. 4.92 1 7 507 A public official grants building permits easier to high-level individu- als and companies than to ordinary citizens. 5.36 1 7 513 Comment: The table shows the average answer of a web-based survey in 2011, conducted in collaboration with the Laboratory of Opinion and Democracy Research ( LORe), University of Gothenburg. The panel participants do not constitute a representative sample of swedes and should not be used to draw inferences to the entire Swedish population. The table shows participants an- swer to the question “ In your opinion, to approximately what extent do following actions occur in Sweden today?”1 (Never occurs)-7(Occurs very often ). 5 The table shows our panel participants’ perceptions of how common different forms of corruption are. The analysis shows that although the majority of Swedes perceives the overall level of corrup- tion as very low, our panel participants perceive greed corruption to be substantially more common than need corruption. Similar questions were asked in our representative survey in 2010, but on the acceptability of different forms of corruption (Bauhr and Oscarsson 2011). 6 In this study we found a significant difference between the acceptability of need and greed in the Swedish sample. Thus 5 The analysis in this section builds on two web surveys consisting of self-selected samples of respondents in Sweden. The surveys were conducted by the LORe (Laboratory of Opinion and Democracy Research) in collaboration with the Multidisciplinary Centre for Opinion and Democracy Research at the Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg. The first survey was conducted in 2009 with 1,453 respondents, and the second in January 2011 with 554 respondents. The panel data does not constitute a representative sample, and should not be used to draw inferences for the entire Swedish population. However, we have some indications that the answers may be relatively robust. For example, on the acceptability question of an entrepreneur offering a gift or service to a public servant in connection with a procurement process, the mean for the panel data is 1.53 and for a representative sample, conducted by the SOM Institute, it is 1.55 (Bauhr and Oscarsson 2011). Similarly, for the acceptability of a public servant demanding a fee to perform a duty that is part of his/her work, the mean for the panel data is 1.17 while it is 1.22 for the representative sample. The question asked in both the web survey and the representative survey conducted by the SOM institute was
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  • Spring '12
  • Ahmed
  • Sweden, Political corruption, Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index, Institutional Trust

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