of other states James Madison Federalist 10 deals with nature of groups or

Of other states james madison federalist 10 deals

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of other states) James Madison- Federalist #10 – deals with nature of groups or factions Anti-Federalist Response (Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams)- Used pseudonyms Montezuma, Philadelphiensis Claimed Constitution was written by aristocrats and would lead to tyranny No list of individual freedoms Wanted to include Bill of Rights Weakened power of states Virginia (June 25, 1788) and New York (July 26, 1788) finally ratify. Historian Charles Beard published “ An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the US (1913)- launched a debate over whether the Constitution was supported by a majority of Americans Beard’s Thesis - The Constitution had been produced primarily by wealthy property owners who desired a stronger government able to protect their property rights. State Ratifying Conventions:
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Delegates chosen for the state ratifying conventions were selected by only 150,000 of the 4 million citizens Anti-Federalists probably outnumbered Federalists Ex Post Facto Law - passing laws that make one liable for an act that has already taken place Bills of Attainder - a legislature could pass judgement on someone without legal process Bill of Rights (First 10 Amendments)- 1. Freedom of Religion, Speech, and the Press 2. Right to Bear Arms 3. Right to deny the quartering of soldiers in their home 4. Protection from Unreasonable Searches and Seizures 5. Rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness 6. Right of Accused Persons in Criminal Cases 7. Rights in Civil Cases 8. No cruel and unusual punishments 9. Rights cannot be taken away by the people 10. Undelegated powers are given to the States and the People Formally Amending the Constitution: 1. 2/3 vote in both chambers of Congress, then 3/4 of state Legislatures MUST approve 2. A National Convention called by Congress (at request of 2/3 of States) a. + 11,000 amendments considered by Congress b. Only 33 have been submitted to the States- 27 Ratified Why was the amendment process made so difficult? The framers feared that a simple amendment process could lead to Tyranny. Informal Methods of Constitutional Change: Formal Amendments- only 17 since the Bill of Rights 1. Congressional Legislation- Congress has the power to regulate foreign and interstate commerce, but that is not clearly defined. They’ve passed thousands of laws as the commerce clause . 2. Presidential Actions- Presidents do not technically have power to propose bills, but they have proposed hundreds of bills to congress each year. 3. Judicial Review- the power of US courts to examine the constitutionality of actions undertaken by the legislative and executive branches of government. It allows the court to adapt the constitution to modern situations. 4. Interpretation, Custom, and Usage- Interpretation by Congress and the president have changed the Constitution.
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