Brazil nuts are the number one source with 1917 mcg per 100 g serving Contributes to odor of onions and garlic family. China produces about ¾ of all the garlic in the world.
Lesson 3: Minerals III Calcium (Ca++): 99% is used in our bones and teeth 1% is necessary for nerve transmission and blood clotting. Discovered in 1883 bye Dr. Sydney Ringer. Intake varies enormously and recommended amounts vary between countries. Relatively lower amounts for very young children, higher amounts from ~10-20, and lower amounts thereafter. The issue for intake is for women; it is judged to be much less than for men. It transfers into the fact that many women are osteoporotic. Studies of the calcium requirement: Calcium in mg/day: - Intake: 250 - Urine: 85 - Stool: 265 - Balance: -100; losing calcium overall every day. Not enough to keep calcium Osteoporosis: “porous bones” from the Greek. Major issue for women. Linked to low dietary calcium. ~9 million associated fractures worldwide. Risk factors: - Short stature - Underweight - Early menopause - Physical inactivity - Alcoholism - Smoking - Excess caffeine, protein, fiber, which tend to capture calcium ions and take them out of body Results in drooping shoulders, curved spine. Resorption (loss of bone mass) for post-menopausal women is 1-5% per year. (at 5%, half bone mass gone in ~14 years). Rule of 70: take 70 and divide by % change over time and the result is the length of time it will take to either double or halve the circumstance in question. Loss of 10% in hip mass increase of 170% in fractures
What is the mechanism of calcium loss and gain? 3Ca +2 + 2PO 4 -3 + - OH Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 OH BLOOD Resorption / Absorption BONES The problem is the resorption process; solubilisation of the bone material yielding loss of this material. Osteoclast: series of cells that liberate acid in their action. The acid is what is taking away the bone material, leaving behind a spot where there is less bone material. Fosamax (Alendronate): Specific inhibitors of osteoclast – mediated bone resorption. 3% increase per year in bone mass. Fosamax has caused jawbone problems. Zometa: relatively new drug remedying to osteoporosis problems. Some side effects are adverse for women. The process of absorption is the key idea. Osteoblast: matrix of protein and mineral material put together by the body (synthesized) and then mineralized into bone (hydroxyapatite). Once it has been put together, the calcium is implanted in the bone. Detection of Low Bone Mass: Blood X-Ray CT scan Single-photon absorptiometry Double-photon absorptiometry last two are most effective Average Risk calculation (FRAX): analysis based on age, parents Osteoporosis Therapies: 1. Must have the calcium, without a doubt. o Caltrate: calcium carbonate available everywhere. 2. Calcium + Vitamin D 3. Exercising: stimulates bone density and bone mass 4. Estrogen: because estrogen levels decrease after menopause.
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- Spring '11