Pneumonia frequently starts as a upper respiratory

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Pneumonia frequently starts as a upper respiratory tract infection that moves into the lower respiratory tract. ] Viral Viruses invade cells in order to reproduce. Typically, a virus reaches the lungs when airborne droplets are inhaled through the mouth or nose. Once in the lungs, the virus invades the cells lining the airways and alveoli. This invasion often leads to cell death, either from damage to the cell by the virus or from a protective process called apoptosis in which the infected cell destroys itself before it can be used as a conduit for virus reproduction. When the immune system responds to the viral infection, even more lung damage occurs. White blood cells, mainly lymphocytes, activate certain
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chemical cytokines that allow fluid to leak into the alveoli. This combination of cell destruction and fluid-filled alveoli interrupts the normal transportation of oxygen into the bloodstream. As well as damaging the lungs, many viruses affect other organs and thus disrupt many body functions. Viruses can also make the body more susceptible to other bacterial infections; in this way bacterial pneumonia can arise as a co-morbid condition.
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