Church bells- real church bells are substituted with long steel tubes of varying length. Struck at top with small rubber hammer. They are called chimes or tubular bells.Piano- there are times when the piano is used for a more percussive effect rather than solo role. Pianos have a network of little hammers that strike the strings, causing them to vibrate.Harpsichord- most important keyboard instrument from 16thcentury all throughout middle part of 18thcentury. During latter part of 18th century, it began to lose favor due to intro of piano. Since keyboard instruments weren’t able to play volume changes one keyboard were used for loud passages and other for soft passages.Celesta- keyboard instrument patented in 1886 by Auguste Mustel of Paris. Resembles upright piano. Setof steel bars fastened over wood resonators. Struck by hammers operated from keyboard, has range of 4octaves and tone is delicate and ethereal. Famous Russian composer Pyotr Tchaikovsky was one of the first to write music for celesta when he wrote famous nutcracker suite.Wide variety of percussion instruments provide musical and rhythmical options to symphony orchestra. Colorful and musical sounds add another dimension to texture of any composition.
Module 3 – composersHANDELGeorge Frederic Handel – 17thcentury composerWrote an extensive variety of sacred and secular music. Exquisite and delightful masterpieces.Prolific compositional achievements, and established reputation as the most important composer of his generation. Had a clear perception of musical trends of his time, and was receptive to the needs of his noble and common audiences.Giant amongst giants of other composers at the time: Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Phillipp Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach, Domenico, and Allesandro Scarlatti.Life and accomplishments:Born 2/23/1685 in Halle, Germany. Learned to play organin cathedral in Halle. Father, a barber-surgeon, thought music was not a gratifying occupation or commendable livelihood. He wanted Handel to become a lawyer. Cathedral was safe place to practice music. At 18, used violinskill to reach a very important landmark of career. Hamburg opera house member of violin section. Fell in love with music and opera. Studied law a Halle University to fulfill his father’s wishes, quit after a year to pursue music. Organ master at cathedral helped with musical studiesas well as noble patrons. Also learned music history and theory at cathedral. Retired position of violinist at Hamburg opera house orchestra, to visit Italy and stayed in many cities including Florence, Venice, Milan and Rome to familiarize self with different styles and audiences and original subtleties of Italian opera. At the time, Italian composer were not impressed by his musical abilities. Vocal music surrounds and defines Handel’s style, but music reflects more than the task of writing for voices. He had a natural ability to understand breathing and phrasing cycle of the voice as a musical instrument.