-Poor memory performanceDeeper Level:-Encode semantic characteristics.-Encoding requires significant effort.-Better memory performance. -When processing was manipulated during encoding…:oShallow / Physical – is the word in capital letters?oModerate / Acoustic – does the word rhyme?oDeep / Semantic – does the word fit in a sentence?Encoding Specificity:-Memory encodes all aspects of an experience; the context that we learn information in is encoded along with the information itself.-Environmental cues are encoded together with memories for items andevents.-Preserving encoding context improves subsequent recall of a memory.-Encoding and recall of information is not a pure isolated experience-All kinds of information encoded along with a memory can later be used as specific cues to trigger that memoryScuba divers experiment: the scuba divers had better recall test scores in the same environment that they took their test. Memory Illusions and Fluency:-Loftus – lost in a mall experiment: our susceptibility to false memories indicate that memory is a reconstructive process.oRepeated imagination of any event can lead to the event being falsely remembered; can confuse false events with actual events.oMemory is reconstructive; open to re-interpretation. -(Processing) Fluency – the ease with which an experience is processed;some experiences are more fluent than others.oFamiliar experiences processed more fluently than novel (new) experiences.-Attribution – judgment tying together causes with effects; used to make sense of fluency.-The time between exposure and recall affects our attributions to fluency. -Memories exist by reconstructing them when we need to remember them.
PSYCH 1X03 – Exam Summary-Bartlett – memory is building blocks that are made up of perception and experience. TEXTBOOK:3 Processes of Memory:-Encoding – how information initially enters into memory; highly dependent on attention.-Storage – how the record of memory is maintained over time; can be modified.-Retrieval – recovering stored information; dependent on retrieval cues (information that triggers memory).-Cues integrated during memory encoding.Sensory Memory:-Transient maintenance of perceptual and physical information from therecent past; not limited by attention.-Iconic Memory – visual information; represented by the visual system.-Echoic Memory – auditory information; represented by the auditory system.-Sensory memory decays at an extremely fast rate. Short-Term (Working) Memory:-Unrehearsed selected information stays in STM for ~20 s; rehearsed (repeated) information stays for longer.-Chunking – information is organized into sets of familiar groups of items; increases STM.Working Memory:-Upgrade to the original conceptualization of STM; has three stores:oPhonological Loop – maintains information that can be rehearsed verbally.
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