o Also controls a variety of autonomic functions o Forms the link between the nervous and endocrine systems Thalamus o Final relay point for sensory information ascending to the primary sensory cortex o Coordinates the activities of the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex by relaying information between them o The third ventricle separates the left and right thalamus o Each thalamus consists of a rounded mass of thalamic nuclei o Interthalamic adhesion-gray matter that extends into the ventricle from thalamus on either side o Functions The thalamic nuclei deal with relay of sensory information to the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex Anterior group Includes anterior nuclei-which are part of limbic system Involved with emotion and motivation Medial group Provide awareness of emotional states by connecting emotional centers in the hypothalamus with the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Ventral group Relay information from the basal nuclei of the cerebrum and the cerebellum to somatic motor areas of the cerebral cortex Also relay sensory information about touch, pressure, pain, temperature, and proprioception Posterior group Pulvinar nuclei Integrate sensory information for projection to the cerebral cortex Lateral geniculate nucleus Receives visual information over optic tract Medial geniculate nucleus
Relay auditory information to cerebral cortex from specialized receptors of internal ear Lateral group Feedback loops with the limbic system and the parietal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres Emotional states and intergration of sensory information Hypothalamus o From optic chiasm to mammillary bodies o Infundibulum-narrow stalk connects the floor of hypothalamus to the pituitary gland o Tuberal area-between infundibulum and mammillary bodies Nuclei involved with the control of the pituitary gland functions o Hypothalamic centers may be stimulated by Sensory information from cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord Changes in composition of CSF and interstitial fluid Chemical stimuli in the circulating blood that move rapidly across highly permeable capillaries to enter the hypothalamus o Functions Subconscious control of skeletal muscle contractions Directs somatic motor patterns associated with rage, pleasure, pain, and sexual arousal Control of autonomic functions Adjust and coordinates activities of autonomic centers in pons and medulla oblongata that regulate heart rate, blood pressure, respiration and digestive functions Coordination of activites of the neurvous and endocrine system Inhibiting or stimulating endocrine cells in the pituitary gland through production of regulatory hormones Hormones produced at tuberal area Secretion of two hormones Antidiuretic hormone-produced by supraoptic nucleus- restricts water loss by kidneys Oxytocin-produced by paraventricular nucleus. Stimulates smooth muscle contractions
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