Vaishyas and shudras saw unprecedented wealthd.Old beliefs and values of early Aryan society became increasingly irrelevantIII.Religions of salvation in classical IndiaA.Jainism and the challenge to the established cultural order1.Vardhamana Mahavira (Jina) founded Jain religion in 5th century B.C.E.2.Jainist doctrine and ethicsa.Inspired by the Upanishads: everything in universe has a soulb.Striving to purify one's selfish behavior to attain a state of blissc.Principle of ahimsa, nonviolence toward all living thingsd.Too demanding, not a practical alternative to the cult of the brahmans3.Appeal of Jainisma.Social implication: individual souls equally participated in ultimate realityb.Jains did not recognize social hierarchies of caste and jatiB.Early Buddhism 1.Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.E.) became the Buddha a.Gave up his comfortable life to search for cause of sufferingb.Received enlightenment under the bo treec.First sermon about 528 B.C.E. at the Deer Park of Sarnathd.Organized followers into a community of monks2.Buddhist doctrine: the dharmaa.The Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path are the way to end sufferingb.Suffering is caused by desirec.Religious goal: personal salvation, or nirvana, a state of perfect spiritual independence3.Appeal of Buddhism
a.Appealed strongly to members of lower castes because it did not recognize social hierarchies of castes and jatib.Was less demanding than Jainism, which made it more popularc.Used vernacular tongues, not Sanskritd.Holy sites venerated by pilgrimse.The monastic organizations--extremely efficient at spreading the Buddhist message and winning converts to the faith4.Ashoka converted and became important patron of BuddhismC.Mahayana Buddhism1.Early Buddhism made heavy demands on individuals2.Development of Buddhism between 3rd century B.C.E. and 1st century C.E.a.Buddha became a godb.The notion of boddhisatva--"an enlightened being"c.Monasteries began to accept gifts from wealthy individualsd.These changes became known as Mahayana Buddhisme.Educational institutions (like Nalanda) promoted new faithD.The emergence of popular Hinduism1.The epics Mahabharata, a secular poem revised by brahman scholars to honor the god Vishnu, the preserver of the world Ramayana, a secular story of Rama and Sita, was changed into a Hindu story2.The Bhagavad Gitaa.A short poetic work: dialogue between Vishnu and warriorb.Illustrated expectations of Hinduism and promise of salvation3.Hindu ethicsa.Achieve salvation through meeting caste responsibilitiesb.Lead honorable lives in the world4.Hinduism gradually replaced Buddhism in IndiaChapter 10: Mediterranean Society: The Greek PhaseChapter Outline
I.Early development of Greek societyA.Minoan and Mycenaean Societies1.Minoan society arose on the island of Crete, late third millennium B.C.E.