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The role of the project manager is twofold when performing integration on the project:Project managers play a key role in working with the project sponsor to understand thestrategic objectives and ensure the alignment of the project objectives and results withthose of the portfolio, program, and business areas. In this way, project managerscontribute to the integration and execution of the strategy.Project managers are responsible for guiding the team to work together to focus on whatis really essential at the project level. This is achieved through the integration ofprocesses, knowledge, and people.Integration is a critical skill for project managers. Integration is covered more in depth in theProject Integration Management Knowledge Area of this guide. Sections through focus184.108.40.206.4on integration that takes place at three different levels: the process, cognitive, and context levels. concludes by addressing complexity and integration.Section 220.127.116.11.1 PERFORMING INTEGRATION AT THE PROCESS LEVELProject management may be seen as a set of processes and activities that are undertaken toachieve the project objectives. Some of these processes may take place once (e.g., the initial creationof the project charter), but many others overlap and occur several times throughout the project. Oneexample of this process overlap and multiple occurrences is a change in a requirement that impactsscope, schedule, or budget and requires a change request. Several project management processessuch as the Control Scope process and the Perform Integrated Change Control process may involve achange request. The Perform Integrated Change Control process occurs throughout the project forintegrating change requests.Although there is no stated definition on how to integrate the project processes, it is clear that aproject has a small chance of meeting its objective when the project manager fails to integrate theproject processes where they interact.3.5.2 INTEGRATION AT THE COGNITIVE LEVELThere are many different ways to manage a project, and the method selected typically depends onthe specific characteristics of the project including its size, how complicated the project ororganization may be, and the culture of the performing organization. It is clear that the personalskills and abilities of the project manager are closely related to the way in which the project ismanaged.The project manager should strive to become proficient in all of the Project ManagementKnowledge Areas. In concert with proficiency in these Knowledge Areas, the project managerapplies experience, insight, leadership, and technical and business management skills to the project.Finally, it is through the project manager's ability to integrate the processes in these KnowledgeAreas that makes it possible to achieve the desired project results.