IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

6 to cover longer discharge times of days to months

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penetration targets. 6) To cover longer discharge times of days to months hydrogen and SNG technology have to be developed. The well-established natural gas grid and underground storage in regions such as Europe can be (partly) used for H 2 and SNG storage. 7) Smart Grid technology using many small, dispersed batteries, such as EV batteries, is attractive for many applications. But even if all EV batteries are used for this purpose they will be insufficient to cover future demand for EES.
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73 Table 4-1 – EES present feasibility, future potential, need for further research and development (Fraunhofer ISE) Given these studies, Table 4-1 shows which EES technology is or will become feasible for what applications, and where further research and development are necessary. In addition to the conclusions above, Table 4-1 shows that Li-ion has great potential for many applications, but needs further careful development and introduction of mass production to achieve cost effectiveness. CAES, RFB and H 2 applicable to utility use for time shifting also need further development and mass production to achieve cost effectiveness. HFB and SNG, also potentially applicable to this application, need further fundamental research and development to achieve reliable and cost- effective products.
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Conclusions and recommendations SECTION 5
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76 S E C T I O N 5 Conclusions and recommendations 5.1 Drivers, markets, technologies From the first four sections of the present paper – the substantive, factual, objective part – the present section seeks to derive conclusions in the form of a coherent picture. From these in turn recommendations may be formulated Figure 5-1 – Conclusions in the form of a logical progression Drivers Renewable energies Smart Grid Dispersed generation/Microgrid Market forecasts Total EES market Conventional large-scale Long-term storage Dispersed storage Recommendations a) Policy recommendations b) R&D recommendations c) Standards recommendations Technological and practical implications Batteries H 2 /SNG (synthetic natural gas) Lifetime costs Control / interoperability Objectives CO 2 reduction More efficient and reliable electricity in the areas of policy (including regulation), research & development, and standardization. This is summarized in Figure 5-1. In the electricity market, global and continuing goals are CO 2 reduction and more efficient and reliable electricity supply and use.
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77 The IEC is convinced that electrical energy storage will be indispensable to reaching these public policy goals. It is therefore essential that deployment of storage should receive long-term and robust support from policy-makers and regulators. Corresponding to these goals, three major drivers determining the future of EES have been identified (see section 3): the foreseeable increase in renewable energy generation, the design and rollout of Smart Grids, and the future spread of dispersed generation and dispersed management of electrical energy – referred to here for simplicity as “microgrids”.
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