BIOL 431 Urinary System study guide.docx

22 what is the effect atrial natriuretic peptide on

Info icon This preview shows pages 3–4. Sign up to view the full content.

22. What is the effect atrial natriuretic peptide on the kidneys? Reduces blood Na+ decrease blood volume and bp! Release by cardiac atrial cells if blood volume or pressure elevated. 23. What is the effect of parathyroid hormone on the kidneys and where does it act. Parathyroid hormone acts on DCT to increase Ca2+ reabsorption 24. What is meant by the renal clearance of a substance? Volume of plasma kidneys clear of particular substance in given time. Renal clearance test used to determine GFR. To detect glomerular damage and to follow progress of renal disease. 25. Know the normal and abnormal substances found in urine. 95% water and 5% solutes. Urea, uric acid, creatinine. Na + , K + , PO 4 3– , and SO 4 2– , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and HCO 3
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Abnormally high concentrations of any constituent or abnormal components, e.g., blood proteins, WBCs, bile pigments, may indicate pathology, 26. Describe the three layers of the ureters. Mucosa transitional epithelium Muscularis smooth muscle sheets. Contracts in response to stretch, propels urine into bladder. Adventitia outer fibrous connective tissue. 27. Describe the layers of the bladder as well as significant landmarks. Mucosa transitional epithelial mucosa Detrusor thick, three layers of smooth muscle Fibrous adventitia Landmarks Trigone, smooth triangular area outlines by openings for ureter and urethra. Two ureter openings and one urethra opening. 28. What type of epithelium lines the urethra? Mostly pseudostratified columnar epithelium except Transitional epithelium near bladder Stratified squamous epithelium near external urethral orifice 29. Describe the two sphincters of the urethra. Internal urethral sphincter involuntary (smooth muscle) at bladder urethra junction. Contracts to open External urethral sphincter Voluntary (skeletal muscle) surrounding urethra as it passes through pelvic floor 30. What are the three regions of the male urethra? Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Spongy urethra 31. Describe the micturition reflex. Urination or voiding. 3 simultaneous events must occur. Contraction of detrusor by ANS Opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS Opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system Reflexive urination (urination in infants) Distension of bladder activate stretch receptors Excitation of parasympathetic neurons in reflex center in sacral region of spinal cord. Contraction of detrusor Contraction (opening) of internal sphincter Inhibition of somatic pathwats to external sphincter, allowing its relaxation (opening) Pontine control center mature between ages two and three *Pontine storage center inhibits micturition Inhibits parasympathetic pathways, excites sympathetic and somatic efferent pathways. Pontine micturition center promotes micturition excites parasympathetic pathways, inhibits sympathetic and somatic efferent pathways.
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Spring '14
  • AdityaR.Kaushik
  • mm Hg, afferent arteriole, renal tubules, Afferent arterioles, granular cells

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern