BIOL 431 Urinary System study guide.docx

22 what is the effect atrial natriuretic peptide on

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22. What is the effect atrial natriuretic peptide on the kidneys? Reduces blood Na+ decrease blood volume and bp! Release by cardiac atrial cells if blood volume or pressure elevated. 23. What is the effect of parathyroid hormone on the kidneys and where does it act. Parathyroid hormone acts on DCT to increase Ca2+ reabsorption 24. What is meant by the renal clearance of a substance? Volume of plasma kidneys clear of particular substance in given time. Renal clearance test used to determine GFR. To detect glomerular damage and to follow progress of renal disease. 25. Know the normal and abnormal substances found in urine. 95% water and 5% solutes. Urea, uric acid, creatinine. Na + , K + , PO 4 3– , and SO 4 2– , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and HCO 3
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Abnormally high concentrations of any constituent or abnormal components, e.g., blood proteins, WBCs, bile pigments, may indicate pathology, 26. Describe the three layers of the ureters. Mucosa transitional epithelium Muscularis smooth muscle sheets. Contracts in response to stretch, propels urine into bladder. Adventitia outer fibrous connective tissue. 27. Describe the layers of the bladder as well as significant landmarks. Mucosa transitional epithelial mucosa Detrusor thick, three layers of smooth muscle Fibrous adventitia Landmarks Trigone, smooth triangular area outlines by openings for ureter and urethra. Two ureter openings and one urethra opening. 28. What type of epithelium lines the urethra? Mostly pseudostratified columnar epithelium except Transitional epithelium near bladder Stratified squamous epithelium near external urethral orifice 29. Describe the two sphincters of the urethra. Internal urethral sphincter involuntary (smooth muscle) at bladder urethra junction. Contracts to open External urethral sphincter Voluntary (skeletal muscle) surrounding urethra as it passes through pelvic floor 30. What are the three regions of the male urethra? Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Spongy urethra 31. Describe the micturition reflex. Urination or voiding. 3 simultaneous events must occur. Contraction of detrusor by ANS Opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS Opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system Reflexive urination (urination in infants) Distension of bladder activate stretch receptors Excitation of parasympathetic neurons in reflex center in sacral region of spinal cord. Contraction of detrusor Contraction (opening) of internal sphincter Inhibition of somatic pathwats to external sphincter, allowing its relaxation (opening) Pontine control center mature between ages two and three *Pontine storage center inhibits micturition Inhibits parasympathetic pathways, excites sympathetic and somatic efferent pathways. Pontine micturition center promotes micturition excites parasympathetic pathways, inhibits sympathetic and somatic efferent pathways.
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