Tion and its people are felt to be closed and

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tion and its people are felt to be closed and secretive, even in the opinion of insiders. Only very special people fit into the organization, and new employees need more than a year to feel at home. Dimension 5 looks at the amount of internal structuring in the organization. According to the key questions, people in 'loose control' units feel that no one thinks of cost, meeting times are only kept approximately, and jokes about the company and the job are frequent. People in 'tight conirol' units describe their work environment as cost-conscious, meeting times are kept punctually, und jokes about the company and/or the job are rate. Dimension 6. finally, deals with the popular notion of 'customer orienta- tion'. Pragmatic units are market-driven; normative units perceive their task towards the outside world as the implementation of inviolable rules. The key items show that, in the normative tinits, the major emphasis is on cor- rectly following organizational procedures, which are more important than results; in matters of business ethics and honesty, the unit's standards are felt to be high. In the pragmatic units, there is a major emphasis on meet- ing the customer's needs, results are more important than correct proce- dures, and in matters of busitiess ethics, a pragmatic rather than a dogmatic attitude prevails. In a later study, perceptions of practices were also analyzed at the indi- vidual level, after elimination of the tinit differences. The individual dif- ferences in answers were shown to reflect differences in individual personality according to the 'big five' dimensions of personality (Hofstede et al. 1993), What had not yet been studied was: To what extent do perceptions of prac- tices also reflect attitudes, and can attitudes and perceptions of practices really be handled as independent constructs? The present article will pro- vide empirical evidence on the relationships between measured attitudes, values, and perceptions of practices in a large questionnaire sui-vey, in which, exceptionally, all three types of questions were included. As .stated earlier, attitudes and values were expected to show up as differ- ent and independent concepts. For conceptual reasons, I expected percep- tions of practices to be entirely different from values, and usually also different from attitudes. This is because attittides and practices are specific to actual situations, while values are abstract preferences. Attitudes and
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Attitudes and Culture 485 values are, by definition, evaluative (they have a positive and a negative pole), while perceptions of practices are supposed to be descriptive. As it is not always possible to suppress affect when describing something, I was prepared to find perceptions of practices showing some overlap with attitudes. Culture or Climate? Questionnaire approaches to the study of organizational culture are often indis- tinguishable from studies of oi^anizational climate. Historically, the concept of climate preceded that of culture, with important publications on climate dating from the 1960s and 70s. In an authoritative monograph, Litwin and
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  • Spring '12
  • dr.long
  • Geeit Hofstede

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