power plant, select the bidders and initiate the construction of the 150 MW IntegratedSolar Combined Cycles Systems (ISCCS’).0Complete the studies, prepare and issue RFP and selection of bidders, and launchin Zafarana, 60 MW wind farm in cooperation with the Danish GovernmentalAgency DANIDA, the first phase (33 MW) of 60 MW wind farm in cooperation withGerman Reconstruction Bank, and 60 MW wind farm in cooperation with Spain.0 Launch the five hybrid wind/diesel systems 6x25 kW wind turbines and 2x100kW diesel-generator each for electrification of rural and remote areas along Northerncoasts on Mediterranean. 0 Complete the equipment of solar energy, biomass conversion researchlaboratories. 0Upgrade the renewable energy information center.(d)Analysis of the policies and assessment of the plans The policies adopted and the plans executed by NAREA, led to many achievements of thisAuthority. Most, if not all, achievements are in the large scale grid connected renewable energyprojects (mega-watt wind farms solar thermal power plants, etc…), It is time now that NAREAgives more attention to small scale system and rural energy services. It is therefore recommendedthat NAREA adds to its policy issues two or more issues such as: 0 Launching a program on integrated rural energy planning in cooperation withOEP.0 Establishing a mechanism to provide rural energy services in cooperation withIntegrated Rural Development Program/Ministry of local Administration.Then, NAREA should include in its yearly plans a crash program to deal with the proposedadditional policy issues. III.2. Role of Institutional Framework in the Development of Sustainable RuralEnergyAs previously mentioned, one of the main features of a sustainable rural energy system ismuch greater utilization of renewable energy resources. Some of the technologies for renewablesource of energy are less mature than the conventional technologies or have not been yet adaptedto specific local conditions of the Egyptian rural areas, or their cost may still compareunfavorably with that of more traditional technologies. The widespread adoption of more
sustainable energy systems is influenced - among other factors - by the institutional framework,which is the only party capable of changing the institutional environment such as establishingnorms and standards, issuing relevant regulations, giving some incentives, reducing taxation,etc…for renewable energy technologies. Also, with the free market economy, the recourse tomarket forces and to private entrepreneurship must be adequately steered by the governmentalinstitutions, so as to avoid the danger that socially important but economically less rewardingtasks are left behind, which is the case particularly for rural electrification and provision ofsustainable energy for the poor.
IV. ROLE OF NGO’s AND DONOR AGENCIES IN IMPROVING RURALENERGY SERVICES AND PROMOTING RENEWABLE ENERGYUTILIZATION IN RURAL AREAS OF EGYPTIV.1. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)Unlike many countries in the Middle East, Egypt enjoys a large number of NGOs.