Different orbital types within a shell are subshells

Info icon This preview shows pages 57–69. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Different orbital types within a shell are subshells .
Image of page 57

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Quantum Numbers sub-shell # of orbitals Total # n l designation m l (= 2 l +1) (= n 2 ) 1 0 1 s 0 1 1 2 0 2 s 0 1 1 2 p 1, 0, -1 3 3 0 3 s 0 1 1 3 p 1, 0, -1 3 9 2 3 d 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 5 4 0 4 s 0 1 1 4 p 1, 0, -1 3 2 4 d 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 5 3 4 f 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3 7 16 4
Image of page 58
59 Energy of orbitals in a single electron atom Energy only depends on principal quantum number n E n = -R H ( ) 1 n 2 n=1 n=2 n=3
Image of page 59

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
60 Energy of orbitals in a multi -electron atom Energy depends on n and l n =1 l = 0 n =2 l = 0 n=2 l = 1 n =3 l = 0 n =3 l = 1 n =3 l = 2
Image of page 60
Electron Configurations H He Li Be B C N O F Ne 1 s 2 s 2 p Electron configurations Expanded Condensed 1s 1 1s 1 1s 2 1s 2 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 2s 2 1s 2 2s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 2p 1 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 2p 1 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 2p 2 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 2p 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6
Image of page 61

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Placing Electrons in Orbitals We follow a simple set of rules: Add e - to orbitals in increasing energy order Hunds rule Hunds rule : “The most stable arrangement of e - ’s in the same subshell has the maximum number of unpaired e - ’s, all with the same spin”. or or Whenever 2 or more orbitals have equal energy (Equal energy = degenerate degenerate ) use Hund’s rule Hund’s rule . Never put 2 e - ’s into an orbital of a degenerate set degenerate set until all degenerate orbitals have 1.
Image of page 62
63 “Fill up” electrons in lowest energy orbitals ( Aufbau principle ) H 1 electron H 1s 1 He 2 electrons He 1s 2 Li 3 electrons Li 1s 2 2s 1 Be 4 electrons Be 1s 2 2s 2 B 5 electrons B 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 C 6 electrons ? ?
Image of page 63

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
64 C 6 electrons The most stable arrangement of electrons in subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins ( Hund’s rule ) . C 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 N 7 electrons N 3 O 8 electrons O 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 F 9 electrons F 1s 2 2p 5 Ne 10 electrons Ne 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6
Image of page 64
Atom Electron Configurations Electron configuration- Complete description of the orbitals occupied by all the electrons in an atom or ion. For an atom in its ground state, electrons are found in the energy shells, subshells, and orbitals that produce the lowest energy for atom. Hund’s rule – Each orbital in a subshell is occupied by a single electron before they can pair Valence and Core Electrons
Image of page 65

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
66 Order of orbitals (filling) in multi-electron atom 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s
Image of page 66
1 s 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p 4 s 3 d 4 p 5 s 4 d 5 p 6 s 4 f 5 d 6 p … Electron Filling Order 1 s 1 s 2 s 2 s 3 s 3 s 4 s 4 s 5 s 5 s 6 s 6 s 7 s 7 s 8 s 8 s 2 p 2 p 3 p 3 p 4 p 4 p 5 p 5 p 6 p 6 p 7 p 7 p 3 d 3 d 4 d 4 d 5 d 5 d 6 d 6 d 5 f 5 f 4 f 4 f n value 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 l value 0 1 2 3 n + l = 1 n + l = 2 n + l = 3 n + l = 4 n + l = 5 n + l = 6 n + l = 7 n + l = 8 The subshell energy levels in multielectron atoms are filled in increasing ( n + l ) order.
Image of page 67

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
68 Electron configuration is how the electrons are distributed among the various atomic orbitals in an atom.
Image of page 68
Image of page 69
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern