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Perhaps this is bc of attributions made for neg. behaviorReview of 23 studies published in this area of researchDistressed spouses:think of their partner’s neg. behaviors as global & positive behaviors as specificif do something good, as externally motivatedif do something wrong, as internally motivatedNondistressed couples:do opposite!give them same benefit of the doubt that we give ourselvesAmerican culture: very likely to blame our own faults on external factors and blame others forinternal factorsDoes appear to be a stronger causal link from attributions to marital satisfactioncycle/loopas relationships progress/worsen, less likely to give your partner the benefit of the doubtThree Components of Social Perception1.Characteristics of the stimulus: “objective” features of the target & behavior2.Characteristics of the perceiver: Chronic/stable (personality); temporary (mood state)3.Characteristics of the context: cues help us interpret ambiguous eventsTwo Routes to Social PerceptionBottomup Processingperceptions guided by stimulusinput comes from outsideTopdown Processingperceptions guided by perceiverexisting mental representations shape how we view the worldinput comes from the inside perceiverRelationship Examples of Topdowndate arrives 30 min. late:good mood: nbd, traffic, etcbad mood: doesn’t care, inconsideratepartner forgets your anniversary:high selfesteem: nbd, just busy/stressedlow selfesteem: they don’t love me, romance is goneGoals: our perception of people, places, and things are colored by their ability (or inability) tohelp us achieve our goals
uniform importance of achieving goalsthere is a meaningful positive association between an ind. goal progress and theirwellbeinggiven this, it is not hard to imagine that there is an assoc. b/w our relationships and ourgoalsRelationships and Goal PursuitsFitzsimons and Bargh found that priming individuals with a specific relationship causedthem to pursue goals related to that relationshipwhen ppl primed w/ their parents, ppl more likely to focus on achievement goals,especially motherfriends who study vs. friends who party when you have different goalsRate instrumental others more positively than noninstrumental others “evaluativepreference”so long as goal is active (finals week example)having similar goals is associated with decreased rates of conflictRelationships are more successful when you are with someone who has similar goals toyou10/6/15BEING SINGLEMore likely to spend more time single than parents, but also more likely to be married longbc longer lifespansFour reasons:DemographicsEconomicsTechnologicalCulturalDemographics:97 men for every 100 women in USimbalance = 100% of men could marry but only 97% of women couldyoung black men are more likely to die younger and/or be incarceratedtherefore even fewer black men for black womenEconomics: