At this scale materials possess new and signi fi

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At this scale, materials possess new and signi fi cantly changed physical, chemical and biological properties mainly due to their structural variation, higher surface Nanochemicals and Ef fl uent Treatment in Textile Industries 83
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area-to-volume ratio offering several uses for pollution control such as treatment, remediation and detection (Rickerby and Morrison 2007 ; Vaseashta et al. 2007 ). These unique properties of nanomaterials, for example, high reactivity and strong sorption, are explored for application in water/wastewater treatment based on their functions in unit. Nanoparticles can penetrate deeper and thus can treat water/wastewater which is generally not possible by conventional technologies. Their higher surface area-to-volume ratio enhances the reactivity with environmental contaminants. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide both water quality and quantity in the long run through the use of, for example, membranes enabling water reuse, desalination. In addition, it yields low-cost and real-time measurements through the development of continuous monitoring devices (Riu et al. 2006 ; Theron et al. 2008 ). Nanoparticles, having high absorption, interaction and reaction capabilities, can behave as colloid by mixing mixed with aqueous suspensions and they can also display quantum size effects (Alivisatos 1996 ). Energy conservation leading to cost savings is possible due to their small sizes; however, overall usage cost of the technology should be compared with other techniques in the market (Crane and Scott 2012 ). Membrane technology, considered as one of the advanced water/wastewater treatment processes due to its ef fi cient and low-cost fi ltration technique (Allabashi et al. 2007 ), has been developed to be even more ef fi cient using nanomaterials. Nanoparticles have been frequently used in the manufacturing of membranes, allowing permeability control and fouling resistance in various structures and rel- evant functionalities (Li et al. 2009 ; Kim et al. 2008 ). Both polymeric and inorganic membranes are manufactured by either assembling nanoparticles into porous membranes or blending process. The examples of nanomaterials used in this for- mation include, for example, metal oxide nanoparticles such as TiO 2 . CNTs have resulted in desired outputs of improved permeability, inactivation of bacteria and so forth (Chae et al. 2009 ; Barhate and Ramakrishna 2007 ). Finally, nano fi brous media have also been used to improve the fi ltration systems because of the high permeability and small pore size properties they possess (Escobar et al. 2001 ). They are synthesized by a novel fabrication technique called electrospinning. Depending on the polymers selected, they exhibit different prop- erties. In short, the development of different nanomaterials such as nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, zeolites, dendrimers and nanostructured catalytic membranes has made it possible to disinfect disease-causing microbes, removing toxic metals, and organic and inorganic solutes from water/wastewater. An attempt is made to highlight the factors that may in fl uence the ef fi
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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