Conceptual vs operational definitions Conceptual o An inferred process that

Conceptual vs operational definitions conceptual o an

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Conceptual vs. operational definitions Conceptual: o An inferred process that humans use to explain different degrees of adaptive success in people’s behavior. Operational: o Verbal skill, score on WAIS, yearly income Intelligence Tests & the IQ Historically: mental age/chronological age. Today: performance on IQ tests IQ Measurement The Standord-Binet Originally developed by Simon & Binet in France to identify slow learning children Revised by Terman @ Stanford University o 2yrs – adult o 60 – 90 mins to administer o One IQ score plus 3 subscales Verbal - quantitative reasoning - abstract visual reasoning The Wechsler IQ Tests Age specific tests o WAIS for 17 and older o WISC for 6-16 o WPPSI for 5 and under Provides one IQ score plus two area scores o Verbal: w/ 6 subscales o Performance: w/ 6 subscales Raven’s Progressive Matrices John Raven’s attempt to develop culture-fair test that requires little use of language o Complete matrix of patterns o Requires abstract reasoning o Single IQ score Theories of Intelligence The G-Factor C. Spearman (1904) took a psychometric approach to this problem o Argued for a “monarchic” theory (a single theory) o G-factor for “general” overriding ability o S-factor for “specific” lesser abilities Mechanical-verbal-spatial abilities Brain and the G-factor… Does size matter? o Activity and size (6%) of given region o Frontal lobe: area 46
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Fluid versus Crystalyzed Intelligence R. Cattell (1987) suggested an important modification to Spearman’s o The g factor has 2 components Fluid intelligence (peaks in the 20s) Power to reason and use intelligence Crsytalized intelligence (cont. growth) Acquired skills and knowledge and its application Multiple Intelligence H. Gardener (1985) claims intelligence comes in numerous unrelated forms o Language, music, logic, spatial empathy & others o Savant & idiot savant cases support this notion Sack’s “The Twins” from The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Triarchic Theory R. Sternberg (1985) proposed a “process-orientated” theory o Describes 3 component Cognitive processing (the software stuff) Identify situations that require intelligence (novel or not) Relationship between intelligence and environment (3 choices here) Standards and Norms Standards refer to the rules for administration and interpreting tests. Norms refer to distribution of test scores # of People Score IQ Norms # of People
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Average IQ = 100 and Standard Deviation = 15 1sd = 34% (or 68%) 2sd = 48% (or 98%) 3sd = 49% (or 98%) Norms and the Flynn Effect Occurring of knowledge and better mart of educational system has caused IQ scores to increase (maybe even health and nutrition) - 6 IQ points/ 10 years Effect seen across IQ tests and across cultures Question: What is being gained: o Scores vs. Intelligence o Operational vs. Conceptual definitions Issue in Testing Reliability repeatability scores Validity is it measuring what it intends to measure o Content (item to test relationship) o Construct (underlying theory) o Predictive (estimate performance elsewhere) Utility (cost effectiveness) Nature vs. Nurture Correlational Studies Twin studies imply genetic influences on IQ o Identical twins, r= .85 or higher Raised apart r= .65 or moderately high o Fraternal twins r= .55 o Siblings r= .45 o Cousins r= .14 o Adopted r= .31 o
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