Lecture7-LongTermMemory-3.pptx

One group of participants read story about carol

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One group of participants read story about Carol Harris A second group of participants read story about Helen Keller A third group of participants read story about Carol Harris , but at test time , were told it was about Helen Keller (also Dooling & Christiaansen) One week later, all participants were presented with test sentences to recognize, including critical new ones such as, “She was deaf, mute, and blind.” 5% recognized 50% recognized 38% recognized 34
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The heir to a large hamburger chain was in trouble. He had married a lovely young woman who had seemed to love him. Now he worried that she had been after his money after all. He sensed that she was not attracted to him. Perhaps he consumed too much beer and French fries. No, he couldn’t give up the fries. Not only were they delicious, he got them for free. 35
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1. The heir married a lovely young woman who had seemed to love him. 2. The heir got his French fries from his family’s hamburger chain. 3. The heir was very careful to eat only healthy food. Which of the following sentences was an exact part of the preceding text? 36
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1. The heir married a lovely young woman who had seemed to love him. 2. The heir got his French fries from his family’s hamburger chain. 3. The heir was very careful to eat only healthy food. Which of the following sentences is plausible given the preceding text? 37
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Reaction Time (seconds) Immediately after 20 minutes later 2 days later Exact recall Plausible retrieval Reaction Time Results from Reder 3.20 3.00 2.80 2.60 2.40 38
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How much does our emotional state, especially the similarity between our emotional state(s) at the time of long-term memory encoding and retrieval, influence our ability to recall information? 39
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Godden and Baddeley had professional divers learn a list of forty unrelated words either on the shore or twenty feet under the sea . The divers were then asked to recall the list in either the same or a different environment. 40
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Dry Wet Wet recall environment Dry recall environment Mean Number of Words Recalled Learning Environment Recall Performance from Godden and Baddeley’s Memory Context Study 13 12 11 10 9 8 41
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State-Dependent (or Mood- Congruent) Learning People find it easier to recall information if they can return to the same emotional and physical state they were in when they learned the information. 42
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Additional Mood Congruence Studies by Teasdale and Russell Two groups of participants learned a series of positive, negative, and neutral words in a normal state. Then, at test a week later, the experimenters induced a “positive” or “negative” state by having them read short texts describing events that had either positive or negative emotional impact. Participants’ recall performance was measured across the two groups. 43
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Elation Depression Average Number of Words Recalled Negative Words Neutral Words Positive Words Mood State at Test 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 44
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