SOUTH AMERICA❚The ancient civilizations of South America are even older than those of Mesoamerica. The earliestAndean sites began to develop around 3000 BCE.❚Between ca. 800 and 200 BCE, during the Early Horizon period, U-shaped temple complexes wereerected at Chavín de Huántar in Peru, where archaeologists have also uncovered monumentalstatues and reliefs.❚The Paracas (ca. 400 BCE–200 CE), Nasca (ca. 200 BCE–600 CE), and Moche (ca. 1–700 CE) cultures of theEarly Intermediate period in Peru produced extraordinary textiles, distinctive painted ceramics, andturquoise-inlaid goldwork. The subjects range from composite human-animals to ruler portraits.❚The Tiwanaku (ca. 100–1000 CE) and Wari (ca. 500–800 CE) cultures of northern Bolivia and southernPeru flourished during the Middle Horizon period. The Tiwanaku culture is noteworthy for itsmonumental stone architecture. The Wari produced magnificent tapestries.NORTH AMERICA❚The indigenous cultures of the United States and Canada date as far back as 10,000 BCE, but most of the surviving art objects date from the past 2,000 years.❚The Eskimo produced small-scale artworks in ivory beginning in the early first millennium CE,reflecting a nomadic lifestyle that required portable objects.❚The peoples of the Mississippian culture (ca. 800–1500 CE) were great mound builders. Cahokia in Illinois encompassed about 120 mounds and was the largest city in North America during theearly second millennium CE.❚In the Southwest, Native Americans have been producing pottery for more than 2,000 years. The black-and-white painted bowls of the Mimbres (ca. 1000–1250 CE) are among the finest.❚The Ancestral Puebloans were master builders of pueblos. The pueblo at Chaco Canyon, NewMexico, had about 800 rooms. Cliff Palace, Colorado, is noteworthy for its sophisticated design,wedged into a sheltered ledge to take advantage of the winter sun and the summer shade.T H E B I G P I C T U R EN AT I V E A RT S O F T H EA M E R I C A S B E F O R E 1 3 0 0Colossal head, La Venta, Olmec, ca. 900–400 BCECastillo, Chichén Itzá, Maya, ca. 800–900 CEEar ornament, from Sipán, Moche, ca. 300 CEGateway of the Sun, Tiwanaku,ca. 375–700 CECliff Palace, Colorado, Ancestral Puebloan, ca. 1150–1300 CE
PREHISTORY AND EARLY CULTURES, ca. 25,000 BCE–1000 CE❚Humankind apparently originated in Africa, and some of the oldest known artworks come from the Apollo 11 Cave (FIG. 1-3) in southwestern Africa. Most African rock art, however, is no earlier thanabout 6000 BCE.❚The Nok culture of central Nigeria produced the oldest African examples of sculpture in the roundbetween 500 BCEand 200 CE. The pierced eyes, noses, and mouths helped equalize the heat duringthe firing process.❚Bronze-casting using the lost-wax method is first documented in Africa in the 9th or 10th century CEat Igbo Ukwu (Nigeria).
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