manufactured goods Perhaps the most powerful single measurement of the

Manufactured goods perhaps the most powerful single

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manufactured goods. Perhaps the most powerful single measurement of the information sector’s dominance is that service industries now represent something like 70 percent of the U.S. 138 the time of the end: inoperative history accomplishment of history but rather of something extraneous to it. Unlike Kojève, both Benjamin and Agamben consider the advent of messianic time in terms of a simple termination of the historical process rather than the fulfilment of its internal logic: ‘nothing histor- ical can relate itself on its own account to anything Messianic’ (ibid; see also Agamben 1999b: 144–5). Nonetheless, while Benjamin’s and Agamben’s notion of the messianic is thoroughly heterogeneous to history, it is not transcendent in relation to the historical world, but is rather irreparably profane, governed by the worldly ideal of happiness, which Benjamin famously conceived of as the ‘rhythm of Messianic nature’: ‘the order of the profane should be erected on the idea of happiness’ (Benjamin 1978: 312). Insofar as it is entirely unattainable through work (Agamben 2007b: 19–21), happiness is a profane condition that is unrelated to anything historical and for this reason corresponds in its effects to those of the advent of the Messianic Kingdom: ‘Just as a force can, through acting, increase another that is acting in an opposite direction, so the order of the profane assists, through being profane, the coming of the Messianic Kingdom’ (Benjamin 1978: 312). The parallel between the advent of the messianic kingdom and the profane ‘rhythm’ of happiness makes possible the reappropria- tion of the emancipatory potential of messianism in the absence of any theological content. If messianic time has no necessary connec- tion with the actual arrival of the Messiah but shares its ‘rhythm’ in bringing about a profane, ‘earthly restitution’ (Benjamin 1978: 312), then messianism no longer refers to an experience of perpetual expec- tation but rather offers a paradigm of bringing history to an end in the here and now, at any historical moment whatsoever (Agamben 2005b: 99–103). In order to understand this possibility we must introduce two concepts of time that are central to Agamben’s rein- terpretation of messianism, chronos (linear homogeneous time) and kairos (the time of rupture or decision). As early as the 1978 book Infancy and History (2007a), Agamben attempted to challenge the continuous concept of time, which fused the Antique circular notion of time with the Christian linear notion. Instead, Agamben proposes the idea of kairological time, which marks the human appropriation of its temporal existence and thus frees the human being from its subjection to history. In this manner, the experience of temporality is no longer conceived in terms of servitude and work but rather as an experience of pleasure, akin to the Spinozan acquiescentia that we analysed in the previous chapter as a mode of ‘eternal life’. Insofar 137 Hegemony in Guyana Communities selected by the Ministry of Amerindian Affairs. Instead, the majority of the budget is ill-defined, leaving ample scope for discretionary payments. Evidence to date was that the budget was being used to further the political campaigns of the governing Party, such as through the appointment of Community Support Officers (CSOs), allegedly recruited only from persons holding Party membership cards. In contrast, there are many successful activities in Amerindian villages, including the well-known projects that have been carried out in the North Rupununi District since 1995 in collaboration with the Iwokrama programme. Those projects were collaboratively developed and transparently executed, and grounded in the comparative advantages of individual communities. Great attention was given to the process of project development, using culturally appropriate methods which fitted with local norms. Based on extensive participatory consultations, the projects included large components of training and mentoring. However, the projects to be funded under the ADF
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