Evolutionary lag genetic change lags behind environmental change When

Evolutionary lag genetic change lags behind

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Evolutionary lag: genetic change lags behind environmental change When environment is changing - there is a period of lag where gene pool has not adapted and spread 3) Migration and mixing of populations from different gene pools Ex. sherpa adaptation to altitude to allow better extraction of oxygen Culture & Memes Cultural evolution does not mean progress or change for the better - it simply means change Cultural evolution: Change in meme frequency over time Memes Self replicating units of culture All culture comes from previous culture (culture units evolve from previous units) Meme: something imitated Units of culture get transmitted from person to person Some memes are more likely to be propagated than others (either better at getting into people’s head or contain information useful to stick around) Cultural drift: culture spread by random chance (language) Cultural selection: some memes have higher reproductive success and thus it spreads faster Cultural Evolution Outcomes 1) Prestige biased learning: less successful people try to do things the more successful are capable of 2) Successful individuals/groups survive and reproduce and pass on their norms 3) People will want to move to groups with more successful norms Nuer Vs. Dinka Differences in political organization: nuer based theirs off of patrolience which meant they were larger in size than dinka who based off of who was co-residing during the wet season Dinka had to adopt nuer ways to form large armies Gene-culture Co-evolution 1) Mutualistic Genes and culture work in same way Something prevalent in culture causes selection pressure which feeds back on culture Ex. lactase persistence - genes with ability to digest lactase are more frequent in places with long history of dairy farming 2) Antagonistic Gene and culture against each other Parasites manipulate their hosts to benefit themselves (fluke in ant brain to attract cows) Memes may cause humans to not behave in ways that will increase our own reproductive success but behave in ways that will pass on memes Ex. not having kids but focusing on careers Cultural Differences Why do cultures differ in the ways they act? Explanations:
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Final Exam Review: Psyc 3100 Evolution 1) Cultural determinism Cultures are autonomous and inexplicable by current ecological or economic factors Extreme view: culture is independent of laws of biology and psychology Defensible view: history creates differences that are somewhat arbitrary and have no functional explanation 2) Ecological determinism Culture consists simply of an evoked response to material and social conditions Evoked culture: diff locations learn different things due to local ecology Extreme view: culture is unnecessary and we just evoke cultural ways when we don’t understanding something Defensible view: certain ecologies favor certain practices which leads to similarities between people in certain circumstances Ex. clothing in the amazon = hot, in the arctic = cold
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