Antibodies Immunoglobulins Activation of complement system The antibody coated

Antibodies immunoglobulins activation of complement

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Antibodies (Immunoglobulins) Activation of complement system : The antibody-coated antigen is subject to a chemical chain reaction with complement, which is a series of proteins found in the blood 体系统的激活:抗体包被的抗原与 体发生化 学链 反应, 体是血液中发现的一系 蛋白质 The complement reaction either can trigger the lysis (bursting) of the invading microbe or can attract microbe-killing scavenger cells that ingest, or phagocytose, the invader 体反应可以触发入侵 生物的 裂解 发),或者可以 吸引 吞噬入侵者或吞噬入侵者的杀 死微 生物的 细胞。 Opsonization : phagocytic cell recognizes the antibody and binds to it which helps it to then engulf and destroy the pathogen 理作用:吞噬细胞识别抗体并与其结合, 从而帮助 其吞噬并消 病原体
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Antibodies (Immunoglobulins) Antibody production continues for several days until all antigen molecules are removed. 抗体生产持续数天,直到 有抗原分子被 除。 Antibodies remain in circulation for several months, providing extended immunity against that particular antigen. 抗体可以循环流通 从而提供 针对 特定抗原的 扩展 免疫力。
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Altering immune function Altered immunity can result from: 免疫力 变可能是 1. Failure of the host defense mechanisms (break in the skin, inhalation of pathogen extra) 2. 宿 主防 机制 失灵 (皮肤破 ,病原体 入) 3. Hypersensitivity – inappropriate, excessive response immune response 4. 症 不适当的过 反应免疫反应 5. Autoimmunity – inappropriate response to self (an autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis) 6. 自身免疫 对自身的不适当反应(自身免疫 病,类 风湿关节 炎) 7. Alloimmunity – reaction directed at tissue antigens from other individuals of the same species 8. 同种免疫 针对来自同一物种其他个体的 组织 抗原的反应
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Host defense failure Pathogen try to evade detection by the immune system by having multi-variations of antigens 病原体 试图 通过具有多种抗原变异来 逃避 免疫系统的 检测 Making it difficult for the T and B lymphocytes to recognize the pathogen T B 淋巴细胞 以识别病原体 Antigenic variation: 抗原变异: Pathogen contains A, B, C, and D antigen 病原体含有 A B C D 抗原 The immune system identifies antigen A and mounts a strong defense 免疫系统识别抗原 A 并具有 大的防 能力 The pathogen then begins to use antigen B to infect cells: pathogen (virus) mutated 然后病原体开始使用抗原 B 细胞:病原体(病毒)发生突变 (3 minutes)
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Host Defense failure The pathogen may use the cells of the immune system as hosts to prevent their destruction 病原体可以 用免疫系统的细胞作为 宿 主,以防止其破坏 The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (pathogen) become encapsulated by lysosome 结核分 枝杆菌 (病原体)被 溶酶 体包 Become walled off – lie dormant for a period of time – latency 困境 潜伏 时间 - 潜伏期 (6 minutes)
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Host defense failure Pathogens may spark a robust immune response – but the body cannot keep that up forever 病原体可能会激发 大的免疫反应 - 身体 无法永远 保持这种状 Can lead to immunosuppression: 可能 导致 免疫 制: During which time the pathogen continues to proliferate (grow) and can overwhelm the immune system 在此 间,病原体继续增殖(生 )并可能使免疫系统不 堪重负 Worsening infection, disease, or disorder 病或
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Hypersensitivity The result from an excessive immune response to allergens 对过 原过 免疫反应的结果
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