c. Content knowledge i. Effect on memory ii. Adolescents are equally knowledgable to adults in certain domains and more so in others eg computers iii. This knowledge indirectly enables them to learn, understand, and remember more new experiences 1. Memory of a baseball game for a novice vs an expert d. Strategies & metacognitive skill i. Adolescents can now identify task specific strategies and monitor how well they are implementing them 1. Outlining and highlight text material e. Problem-solving & Reasoning i. Heuristics vs. analytical reasoning 1. Children use heuristics (rules of thumb) whereas adolescents are analytical and logical 2. Adolescents are much more rational in thinking logically ii. Finding weaknesses/flaws in reasoning 1. Adolescents are skilled at finding weaknesses in arguments or flaws in reasoning a. Hazards of generalizing from a small example 2. Like adults, they sometimes use heuristics to find a good enough, effortless solution 3. Also like adults, their beliefs sometimes interfere with analytical, logical thought a. Belief bias, belief perseverance – disregarding fact by ac iii. Belief bias/perserverance 4. Cognitive Development – Morality a. Moral dilemmas i. Children and adults have very different moral reasoning ii. Major developments in moral thinking occur during adolescence
iii. b. Kohlberg’s stages i. Level 1: reward & punishment preconventional ii. Moral dilemmas to measure reasoning at different stages 1. Stage 1 – obedience to authority 2. Stage 2 – reciprocity – nice behavior in exchange for future favors iii. Level 2: conventional - social norms 1. Stage 3: what will others think – live up to other’s expectations 2. Stage 4: social order – follow rules to maintain social order iv. Level 3: moral codes- postconventional moral codes 1. Stage 5: validity of social contracts – adhere to a social contract when it is valid 2. Stage 6: personal moral system based on abstract principles - abstract principles (justice, etc.) a. Individuals purportedly move progressively through the six stages i. In sequential order, cannot skip stages ii. c. Support/criticism for Kohlberg’s theory i. Longitudinal studies show that people do progress sequentially; do not skip stages ii. Moral reasoning and moral behavior are linked iii. However, moral reasoning is inconsistent across situations iv. Kohlberg’s universality claim aslo is not strong – cultures vary in what they emphasize when deciding right from wrong d. Gender differences i. Men tend to stress justice, women stress care ii. Adolescents and adults of both genders will reason based on care or justice iii. Situation affects whther and which reason dominates e. Teaching moral reasoning i. Exposure to higher level reasoning ii. Open discussion of moral dilemmas with someone who reasons at a higher level 1. Especially helpful when the more advanced partner paraphrases the other’s viewpoints to highlight possible inconsistencies issues 2. Religious involvement and communities a. May promot ea sense of duty to others and concern for others 3.
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