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d. PARAPHRASING:This method of taking notes emphasizes taking the materials read paragraph by paragraph and re-rendering them in one’s word, to bring out only major ideas with one’s personal interpretations of same.e. SUMMARISATION: After reading a whole passage or a piece of materials the student should ask himself what the author has said and write this down in his own words. He can turn to the passage to remind himself of the key words and ideas. f. THE VERBATIM REPORTER:Majority of students use this method in lectures. They want to put down virtually everything that the lecturer says and once they miss out certain words, the notes taken become less useful. This
47 method is very weak method and it is similar to taking down dictation from the lecturer. This should not be encouraged. g. USE OF ABBREVIATIONS: Another useful method of taking notes quickly and effectively is the use of abbreviations. This method saves time and space and helps the student catch up with important ideas especially in lectures. Some subjects have specific signs/codes used as abbreviation. Each students has to learn those in his subject. Sometimes there may be need to coin or invent personal codes which the student employs as abbreviations. However, there is need for care and caution in interpreting the abbreviated words as well as the codes when revising. 3.5 Different Types of Reading:The school counselor can also guide the students regarding how to read. There are various reading strategies depending on the purpose of reading. At times the students may need to read a book from cover to cover, at other time, he might have to read just a few chapters in a book while in other cases he might just be required to read a part of single chapter. Basically there are five reading methods. a. Skimming:This is done to have a general impression of the book, that is to understand what it is all about. Not every word is read but key areas like the title page and the major sub-headings, the first paragraph of the chapter, the first one or two sentences of each paragraph, the last paragraph of the chapter, the summary of the chapter should also be noted. b. Scanning:Scanning involves one’s eyes down the pages to look for specific information. There is no need of reading every word or detail. For more understanding however, one may decide to read the paragraph
48 or few sentences before and after the specific information one is actually looking for. c. Critical Reading: AT times, one may be reading only for the purpose of finding out the author’s point of view, what motivated him to write and his biases to assist one in making up one’s mind on certain issues. The facts are therefore carefully separated from opinions and general comments while reading.