The group if groups were assigned randomly o random

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the group if groups were assigned randomly o Random assignment lets you say that the only difference btwn groups is the variable that was changed o There may be other related variables when observing a relationship in the real world Sometimes there are experiments where you cannot randomly assign groups (ex – studying humans development) Some solutions if you cannot randomly assign groups o Look at non-human studied to experimentally manipulate biological variables
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o Try to make the groups as similar as you can even if they are not randomly assigned You need to think about other things that could be different in the groups and how to control for those variables by matching the groups on as many other variables as possible Want to eliminate as many pre-existing difference btwn groups except for what you’re interested in Quasi-experiment – experiment w/o random assignment Important to think about the population that you are generalizing o More ways that population is different from our sample, less confidence we have in generalizing o Important question in psychology is how generalizable our science is Acronym for how psychology participants are from WEIRD countries o W – Western, E – educated, I – industrialized, R – relatively rich, D democracy Disciplines that are less dependent on WEIRD samples find the disciplines that psychologists study as weird o Focusing a study only on people from WEIRD countries narrows the scope of the research Easier to generalize to a population if the people are a random sample of that population Sample size – if we ask more people, we are more likely to have a reliable and trustworthy result o Bigger sample size makes it less likely that there are preexisting differences in individuals we chose o Chance that there are pre-existing differences btwn the groups is higher if the sample size is smaller Debunk’d Myth – Opposites attract. We are most romantically attracted to people who differ from us. o Misconception that opposites attract is portrayed in films and television – rare in real life Reality – People look for partners and friends w/ personality traits and values that are similar to them o We tend to like people who we have more things in common with and people who are more like us One study had participants fill out a scale where they rated personal importance of difference aspects of life o They were shown scales completed by other people and asked to judge each person o Participants perceived other people more positively when responses on the scale were similar to their own Lecture 4 – Psychology of Learning Psychology in The News Research has shown that students who did frequent testing did better than students who did 2-3 midterms
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o Students did better in psychology tests but also on other tests for other classes Students who were first-generation students & students from low SE background benefited more Science of Learning Continued
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