Normal airway images 198 probe selection 195 role in

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normal airway images, 198 probe selection, 195 role in airway management, 191 scanning tips, 197 trouble with airway images, 197 views, 196 ALARA (as low as reasonably acceptable) principle, 5 Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging, 241 American College of Emergency Physicians, 27 American College of Radiology, 241 American College of Surgeons, 27 American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, 241 amplitude definition, 1–2 anechoic areas, 1–2 anembryonic gestation, 92–93 ankle effusions, 307 aortic dissection. See aortic ultrasound aortic ultrasound, 115–130 AAA anatomy, 116 AAA images, 125–127 abnormal scans, 125–127 aortic anatomy, 116 aortic dissection images, 128 differentiating aorta and vena cava, 122–123 distal aorta transverse view, 121 evaluating aortic diameter, 124 evaluation of the iliac arteries, 124 focused questions, 115 hypotensive patient, 261 iliac arteries bifurcation view, 121 literature review, 129–130 longitudinal view, 120–122 mid aorta transverse view, 120 probe selection, 116 proximal aorta transverse view, 117–120 role in AAA diagnosis, 115 sagittal plane view, 120–122 sample clinical protocol, 128–129 scanning tips, 124 technique, 116–125 trouble with aorta scanning, 124 views, 116–124 appendicitis, 227 pediatric patients, 241–242 arthrocentesis. See joint effusions and arthrocentesis artifacts, 16–21 A-lines, 17 , 193–194 acoustic shadowing, 16–17 B-lines, 194 , 262 beam width artifact, 21 caused by metallic objects, 18 comet tail, 18 , 51–52 Index 337 Index
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artifacts (cont.) enhancement, 19 grating lobe artifact, 20 lung sliding artifact, 51–52 mirror image, 18–19 posterior acoustic enhancement, 19 refraction, 18 reverberation, 17–18 ring-down artifact, 18 , 232 side lobe artifact, 20 ascites and paracentesis, 301–304 anatomy, 301 focused questions, 301 literature review, 303–304 pitfalls, 303 probe selection, 301 procedure, 302 setup, 301–303 special equipment, 301 technique, 301–303 tips, 303 asthma, 262 attenuation definition, 2–4 factors affecting, 2–4 attenuation coefficients, 2–4 axial resolution definition, 4 axial view, 10 B-lines, 194 hypotensive patient, 262 B (brightness) mode scanning, 14 beam width artifact, 21 bedside cardiac ultrasound advantages and limitations, 61 bedside ultrasound benefits for pediatric patients, 241 bladder aspiration, 323–327 anatomy, 325 focused questions, 323 literature review, 327 pitfalls, 326 probe selection, 325 procedure, 325 setup, 325 special equipment, 325 suprapubic bladder aspiration, 325 technique, 325–327 tips, 326 urethral bladder catheterization, 325–326 bladder cancer, 145 bladder ultrasound. See renal and bladder ultrasound blighted ovum, 92 cardiac arrest ultrasound, 83–85 cardiac tamponade cardiac ultrasound, 78–80 hypotensive patient, 256 cardiac ultrasound, 61–88 abnormal images, 76–85 acute heart failure, 199 anatomy, 62–63 apical four-chamber view, 70–73 cardiac arrest, 83–85 cardiac tamponade, 78–80 detection of pacing capture, 323–324 FAST exam, 66 focused questions, 61 global cardiac function evaluation, 81–84 hemopericardium, 81 hypotensive patient, 255–258 left parasternal long axis view, 67–69 left parasternal short axis view, 70 literature review, 87–88 new directions, 88 normal images, 74–76 pericardial fluid, 76–78 pericardiocentesis, 323
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