■1798, July, French fleet enters Egypt, chased by Lord Nelson. ●Mamluk forces assemble at the arrival area Abu Kir ●Disease runs rampant through the french army ●Lord Nelson arrives ●July 12-13, Battle of the Pyramids ○Impact is realized in the first 15 minutes ○Cavalry decimated ●August 1st, Lord Nelson sinks the french fleet ●Napoleon Enters Egypt and attempts to make peace with the people, Arabic printing press ●Moves up to Syria ●Leaves back to france and eventually elected first consul and then declared himself Emperor. Lecture ●Iran gets newspapers due to the introduction of the printing press in the middle east. ●French discovery of the rosetta stone ○Able to translate egyptian ○Beginning of modern archeology ●Unbelievable change ○Voyages of exploration changed the european mind, to question ○Europe vaulted to a superior position ○Ottoman empire now at a lower position ○The middle east is just too important to allow any one country (Britain, France or Russia) to control it. ○Ottoman empire (“the weak man of europe”) given control, because they can be controlled by superior powers ○Qajar (Succession of 9 Iranian Kings) interested in keeping themselves happy rather than see Iran progress ●Mohammed al-Wahhab ○Comes to the conclusion that what has hindered the middle east and caused so many problems is the fact the the middle east had moved away from Sharia teachings. ●Tribal leader in Sudan, declared that he is the Mahdi ○Demands a following. ○Claims to have come to restore Islam in a world that has gone astray ○Claimed he was commanded by mohammed that he had to pray in the mosques of the islamic world, to bring the islamic world together in blood. ○1885 begins his movement.
○Takes the city of Khartoum ○Within a year, Mahdi dies, ●Rational Approaches ○M, Abduh ■Educator ■Stressed that change was only going to come to the islamic world through education ■Suggested that Islam be altered to be in better tune with the changes of the times ○New Religion ■Baha'i faith ●Claimed one day that the world will be united politically ●All religions are one ●Secular Reactions ○Fokoli ■Group of Upper Class Iranians ■Thought Islam was the problem ■Dressed western style ○Amir Qabir ■First printing press ■First newspaper ■Demanded Iran create its own munitions factory ■Stressed the importance of education ■Became prime minister ■Was forced to commit private suicide Lecture 1854-1869 ●Building the Suez Canal ○Ferdinand De Lesseps ■In 1854, puts together a plan and an operation to build a canal ■Has the support of the Governor of Egypt and his son Ismail ■When DeLesseps goes to europe for economic support, neither France or Britain show initial support ■Canal is opened, and there is an expensive celebration ●Egypt is bankrupt ●Ismial offers to sell shares of the canal ○Benjamin Disraeli interested ○