A procedure for terminating debate especially

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: A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate Only formal method for ending a filibuster Once a motion to end debate is made by 60 senators, cloture imposes a limit that senators may speak for only 1 hour CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES Committees are where much of the work is done in Congress The draft legislation, review nominees, conduct investigations of executive branch departments and agencies, and are usually responsible for smoothing out the House and Senate TYPES OF COMMITTEES Standing Committees : A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focussing on a policy area Special or Select Committees : A congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation Joint Committees : A committee composed of members of both the House and Senate; such committees oversee the Library of COngress and conduct investigations Standing committees are the most important types and fall into 6 categories
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1- Rules and Administration determine the basic operations of their chamber 2- Budget Committees were created to give each chamber greater information and discipline on the overall federal budget 3- Authorizing Committees pass the laws and tell government what to do 4- Appropriations Committees make decisions about how much money the government can spend on authorized programs 5- Revenue Committees deal with raising money that appropriating committees spend 6- General Oversight Committees have wide latitude to investigate the performance of the government (House: Oversight and Government Reform Committee / Senate: Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee CHOOSING COMMITTEE MEMBERS Each political party controls the selection of standing committee members The majority party selects the chair of each committee, while the minority party chooses the ranking member Seniority Rule : A legislative practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee THE SPECIAL ROLE OF CONFERENCE COMMITTEES A bill may only become a law if the House and Senate pass identical versions Conference Committee : A committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form Major bills normally have to go through one of these before becoming a law MEMBER CAUCUSES Member caucuses are informal groups of senators and/or House members that come together to promote shared legislative interests Focus on things like arts, arthritis, children, defence, immigration, tax reform, women's’ rights, veterans, the corn industry, fishing industry, steel industry Officially called Congressional Member Organizations 10.4: HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW The Framer’s organized the system so that one party could not reign supreme 1/100 bills receives a formal committee HOW IDEAS BECOME BILLS
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