•Melodies are usually sequencedoMelodic sequencing is when the melody, or a fragment of the melody is repeated 2 or more time at different pitch levels•Texture is dense.oAs the composers worked out the filling in of the inner voices, polyphony returns.←J.S. Bach (1685-1750) ←Born to a very musical family←←Largely self taught by coping, arranging, and studying the music of Corelli, Vivaldi, Pachelbel, and Palestrina•Taught himself to play the organ and became a renowned organ virtuoso←Career•Spent 9 years as organist in Weimar•Got a better job in Cothen, Germany as Music Director for the Court•Directed an “all star” orchestra for the Prince of Cothen.oThis is the time in his life that Bach wrote a series of Famous Concerto Grosso called the Brandenburg ConcertooAs well as his keyboard work the Well-tempered Clavier•In 1723, moved to Leipzia, Germany and became the Cantor of Saint Thomas’s Church and choir school.
oA very important and difficult job.He had to provide new music for Sundays and holidays.A commitment of about 60 days a yearoWrote many church Cantatas during this time.←←Bach’s preferred techniques←←Fugue•The greatest expression of polyphonic writing is a form called fugue.•Of all composers, J.S. Bach is considered a master of this form.•It is a way to show off technical skill in contrapuntal writing.•Melody upon melodyoFugue is a contrapuntal form and procedure.oThe word itself means “flight”oFirst there is a main theme called the subjectEach voice enters with the subject.This section is called the expositionoFollowed by a free writing section called an episodeoThese two ideas then alternateoUsually fugues are for 2-5 voices or parts.They have been written for as many as 32.
←Pedal Point•Another technique preferred by Bach and certainly well suited to the organ•The organ was a main instrument of the Baroque and Bach was considered a virtuoso organist.←**Listen to J.S. Bach Organ Fugue in G minor; Concerto Grosso; Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major←←Ritornello Form, Shows off the Keyboard←←Cadenza – a showy passage for soloist alone toward the end of a movement in a concerto←←Church Cantata ←Multi movement sacred work including arias, ariosos, recitatives, vocal soloists, a chorus, small orchestra.
- Spring '08
- Music, Baroque music, The Court