GES1021-SSS1207-Lecture 3-subtidal-24August2018s.pdf

Open sea three principal lifestyles drifting plankton

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clams, marine snails, sole fish etc.)
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OPEN SEA
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THREE PRINCIPAL LIFESTYLES DRIFTING Plankton limited swimming ability; mostly microscopic; dependent on water currents for transport from one area to another. SWIMMING Nekton strong swimmers, includes most adult fishes, squid, turtles, prawns and whales; movement between areas independent of currents. Pelagic species occupy the upper water column, while demersal species stay closer to the bo<om. ATTACHED Benthos bo<om-dwelling organisms; generally a<ached to the substratum or lifestyle strongly associated with the substratum.
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Why are plants not found on our seabed >7m depth? Sediments, Light penetration, Water temperature (slight due to water circulation), Water pressure. Floating macroalgae can be found e.g. Sargassum (brown seaweed)
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Water Column
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Singapore waters Shallow waters About 20m in depth (average)
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Sargassum spp.
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Diatoms
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Dinoflagellates (Red Tide )
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Dinoflagellates Paralytic Shell Poisoning (PSP) Saxitoxin
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Copepods
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Fishes: Rays
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The largest shark is the giant whale shark ( Rhincodon typus ) a gentle creature that swims across oceans and feeds on plankton. A 4.5m long whale shark was trapped in a kelong (palisade fish trap) during the 1960s and remains the only record from Singapore. Fishes - sharks
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Bony fishes
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Marine turtles Eretmochelys imbricata (Hawksbill turtle) Hatchings at East Coast Park, 2009
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Hawksbill turtle hatchlings in East Coast Park August 2017
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Caretta caretta ( Loggerhead turtle)
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Chelonia mydas (Green sea turtle) Green turtle caught accidentally in fishing net
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Dermochelys coriacea ( Leatherback turtle)
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Laticauda colubrina (Sea snakes ) Skeletal muscles breakdown
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