t h i e a very important matter I dearnstly request you t o kindly sttend the

T h i e a very important matter i dearnstly request

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t h i e a .very important matter I dearn~stly request you t o kindly. sttend the committee meetin& at Bombay t o help 9s in our delibra- tion and t o enable us t o deoide our fffut\ire line of aotion. I remain Yours sincere1 y 24. 1,etter for a meetinn of Khilafat Cnmmittee
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22.4.5 Parting of the Ways Grorrth of Comrnunalbm u# to the .Second World War The arrival of the Simon Commission and its near unanimous boycott by all sections of political opinion, once again provided an opportunity for unity. A section of the Muslim League, under the leadership of Jinnah, took the initiative and was willing to give up - - separate-electorates in favour of joint-electorates, if certain conditions were met. These were : 1/3rd representation for the Mus1i.m~ in the central legislature. separation of Sind from Bombay as a separate province, reform in the North-West Frontier provinces, and Muslims' representation in the legislative council in proportion to their population in Punjab and Bengal. ; These demands were accepted by the Congress, which opened up prospects for unity. Bu its rejection in uncompromising terms by the Hindu Mahasabha at the All Parties Conference (1928) complicated matters. The incompatibility between the League and Mahasabha frustrated all attempts at unity. The Nehru Report (framed by Motilal Nehru and Tej Bahadur Sapru), was rejected by the Muslim League as it did not incorporate all their demands. The impact of the Nehru report was significant : It led to the estrzngement of Jinnah. who called it a 'Parting of the Ways' with the Congress. went back to the se~arate-electorates. and formulated his famous fourteen poink (including separate-ele'ctorabes, reservation of seats in the centre and provinces, reservation of jobs for Muslims, creailon of new Muslim majority provinces, etc.) which became the text of the communal demands. It increased the distance between various political groups and pushed Jinnah more toward communalism. It also conmbuted to the aloofness and even hostility of most leaders among the Muslims 25. Mohd. Ali Jinnah toward the Civil Disobedience Movement. . 22.4.6 Towards a Mass Base The events of 1928-29 demonstrated a drifting apart of the communal forces. Soon this drifting apart was to reach a point of no return. This was the starting point of communalism transforming into an irresistible mass force. By 1940, all the cbmmunal demands were to pale into insignificance in front of the new demand-the demand for Pakistan, as a separate homeland for Muslims. This demand was finally achieved in 1947. Let ps look at these events in more details. The Government of India Act, 1935, provided for provincial autonomy and a wider franchise than earlier. Elections were held in early 1937 under separate-electorates. The results were quite revealing. In the general constituencies, Congress swept the polls, was in , a position to form ministries in six provinces and was the largest single party in two others. In the Muslim constituencies however, the Congress performance was disappointing. Out of 482 Muslim consti~encies, Congress contested 58 and won 26. Quite interestingly,
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