Soaps starches vegetable oils which were all easily

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soaps, starches, vegetable oils), which were all easily biodegradable. Chemicals in wastewater and the air were mostly degraded and neutralized by natural processes. However, increased population and higher consumption of textiles per capita led to increased production and care, which resulted in a serious hazard to the environment. During the last century, numerous new dyestuffs and auxiliaries were synthe- sized and gradually accumulated in the environment. Because of increased envi- ronment consciousness and enhanced knowledge, people began to realize that numerous chemicals previously considered to be safe and harmless were in fact carcinogenic, potentially carcinogenic, or toxic; consequently, legal regulation to ban these products or to limit their use resulted (Sivaramakrishnan 2009a , b ). According to these regulations, designers and manufacturers of textile products are supposed to pay special attention to meeting contemporary ecological requirements. For a product to be green , it should be environmentally friendly throughout its production cycle, during use and care, as well as after its useful life has been terminated. Product design must not consider only the requirements of the economy but also those of ecology (Thiry 2009 ). In constructing a product, the designer should analyze the production process, together with the product s end use, everyday use, and care for the product designed. Special certi fi cates are awarded by independent institutions to the products that are environmentally friendly and do not represent health hazards. Ecological acceptability can be in uenced by the raw material selection. Textiles that can be recycled should not be mixed with those that are not acceptable for recycling. Individual garment parts, such as some coatings, fi bers, and zippers, may not be ecologically friendly. Although their substitution may be quite expensive, a pro- ducer aiming for ecological production will consider substituting such parts with ecologically acceptable and environmentally friendly products. Designers should keep in mind that the responsibility for the product does not end with its manufacture; it lasts at least as long as the lifecycle of the product in question. It is extremely important for textile products not to emit volatile organic compounds or some other harmful substances (e.g., heavy metals) during their use and care. Textile care exhibits more profound and more serious impacts on the Development of Eco-labels for Sustainable Textiles 139
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environment than the manufacture itself. Excessive quantities of water are generally used for the repeated washing of used textile materials. This is the reason why textile products should be designed to have as little need as possible for washing and dry cleaning. For example, a proper and environmentally friendly oil-proof fi nish, if also soil-resistant, can considerably reduce the number of necessary washing and dry cleaning cycles, which obviously saves water and energy in the lifecycle of the product being treated. Washing at lower temperatures offers a
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