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An organism that can survive during the adult stage but cannot produce any progeny in that environment will fail to become established in that habitatClimate Vs weatherClimate refers to longer times and wider areas Weather is the state of the atmosphere to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet, or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudyBiotic Pump Hypothesis
Natural forests create and control ocean to land winds, bringing moisture to terrestrial habitatWinds blow from regions of high air pressure to low air pressureAs water vapor condenses, the # of gas molecules condenses into dropsoCondensation above natural forests create a persistent low pressure zoneNatural forests are critical for sustaining rainfall oA positive feedback loopWhat Drive Earth's Climate?oSolar radiationoEarth's relative position to the sun: tilt, rotation, revolution oAtmospheric gases: H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3oMilankovitch cycles inflluence the episode nature of earth's glacial and interglacial periods These cycles describe: eccentricity, axial tilt, and precessionCycles create alterations in seasonality of solar radiation reaching earth's surfacePeriods increased or decreased of solar radiation directly influence the Earth's climate system oAdditional climate factors: global ocean currents and global air circulationOcean Circulation oNorth Atlantic circulation is driven by warm, salty water moving northward where it cools, becomes denser and sinks to the ocean bottom where it then flows southThis action pulls surface water from the south giving rise to the gulf streamoGlobal Conveyor Belt is part of the process that drives the world's oceanic currents oIncrease in global temperatures cause Greenland ice sheets to melt meaning water is becoming less dense and not sinkingConsequently, the gulf stream is slowing downSlowdown in Atlantic Ocean Circulation- Gulf StreamoBermuda gets colderoColder waters likely to kill most or all of corals surrounding Bermuda After death of corals, Bermuda's protection from high energy wave action and severe tropical storms will be removedECOLOGY: THE BIOSPHERE AND ABIOTIC CONDITIONS Limiting factors of populationsoThe determine the carrying capacity of an environment for a species oDensity Dependent:CompetitionPredationParasitism and Disease oDensity Independent Natural DisasterUnusual WeatherPopulation regulationoWhat factors might decrease births, increase mortality, or increase dispersal out of an area when density decreases?????
(DENSITY INDEPENDENT FACTORS)Limiting resources ( competitionPlaces to liveShelterFoodWaterPathogens (disease)Transmission rate increases with density Predators Easier to detect/ capture prey when density is highParasitesEasier to detect/ find host when density is highoDensity Dependent Population RegulationNegative feedback loop