jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

Theme 226 the window theme broke 227 the window theme

Info icon This preview shows pages 379–381. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
THEME (22.6) The window THEME broke. (22.7) The window THEME was broken by John. AGENT These examples suggest that break has (at least) the possible arguments AGENT , THEME , and INSTRUMENT . The set of thematic role arguments taken by a verb is often called the thematic grid , q -grid, or case frame . We can see that there are thematic grid case frame (among others) the following possibilities for the realization of these arguments of break : AGENT /Subject, THEME /Object AGENT /Subject, THEME /Object, INSTRUMENT /PP with INSTRUMENT /Subject, THEME /Object THEME /Subject It turns out that many verbs allow their thematic roles to be realized in various syntactic positions. For example, verbs like give can realize the THEME and GOAL arguments in two different ways:
Image of page 379

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
380 C HAPTER 22 S EMANTIC R OLE L ABELING (22.8) a. Doris AGENT gave the book THEME to Cary. GOAL b. Doris AGENT gave Cary GOAL the book. THEME These multiple argument structure realizations (the fact that break can take AGENT , INSTRUMENT , or THEME as subject, and give can realize its THEME and GOAL in either order) are called verb alternations or diathesis alternations . The alternation verb alternation we showed above for give , the dative alternation , seems to occur with particular se- dative alternation mantic classes of verbs, including “verbs of future having” ( advance , allocate , offer , owe ), “send verbs” ( forward , hand , mail ), “verbs of throwing” ( kick , pass , throw ), and so on. Levin (1993) lists for 3100 English verbs the semantic classes to which they belong (47 high-level classes, divided into 193 more specific classes) and the various alternations in which they participate. These lists of verb classes have been incorporated into the online resource VerbNet (Kipper et al., 2000) , which links each verb to both WordNet and FrameNet entries. 22.3 Semantic Roles: Problems with Thematic Roles Representing meaning at the thematic role level seems like it should be useful in dealing with complications like diathesis alternations. Yet it has proved quite diffi- cult to come up with a standard set of roles, and equally difficult to produce a formal definition of roles like AGENT , THEME , or INSTRUMENT . For example, researchers attempting to define role sets often find they need to fragment a role like AGENT or THEME into many specific roles. Levin and Rappa- port Hovav (2005) summarize a number of such cases, such as the fact there seem to be at least two kinds of INSTRUMENTS , intermediary instruments that can appear as subjects and enabling instruments that cannot: (22.9) a. The cook opened the jar with the new gadget. b. The new gadget opened the jar. (22.10) a. Shelly ate the sliced banana with a fork. b. *The fork ate the sliced banana. In addition to the fragmentation problem, there are cases in which we’d like to reason about and generalize across semantic roles, but the finite discrete lists of roles don’t let us do this.
Image of page 380
Image of page 381
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern