Sound is used to characterize a valid argument of

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“sound” is used to characterize a valid argument of whose all premises are true in case of  inductive logic. A deductive argument fails to establish the truth of its conclusion if it is  unsound, which means either that it is not valid or that not all of its premises are true.  However, the logician is not so much interested in the truth or falsehood of propositions as  in the logical relations between them. By “logical” relations between propositions we mean  those which determine the correctness or incorrectness of arguments in which they may  occur. Thus the need to determine the correctness or incorrectness of arguments is a 
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preserve of logic. The logician is interested in the correctness of arguments whose premises  might be false. 1.44 SUMMARY  Logic is important because it allows people to enhance the quality of the arguments they  make and evaluate arguments constructed by others. It is also an essential skill in  determining what is necessary to believe and what is not.  Being the study of the evidential  link between premises and conclusions logic is instrumental to good argumentation,  constructive decision making and problem solving NOTE  Logical thinking outwits random processing!”  – Stephen Richards 1.45 ACTIVITIES Students to engage in group discussions, online forums and chats, undertake quizzes and  assignments, attend tutorials and constantly consult with the lecturer. 1.46  FURTHER READING   Guenthner, F. (eds.). (2005).  Handbook of Philosophical Logic . 13 vols., 2nd edition.  Kluwer Publishers: Dordrecht. Hodges, W. (2001).  Logic. An introduction to Elementary Logic , Penguin Books. Hughes, R.I.G., (1993, (Ed.).  A Philosophical Companion to First-Order Logic . Hackett  Publishing. Namwambah T. 2011.  Essentials of critical and Creative Thinking.  Nairobi: Njigua Books 1.8   SELF-TEST QUESTIONS 1. Define logic and then show its relevance in our everyday day life. 2.  Distinguish between deductive and inductive reasoning. 3. What is the meaning of: a)      an inference b)      a deductive argument c)      Inductive argument 1. Using your own examples demonstrate that the distinction between Inductive and  Deductive reasoning is based on the degree of the evidential strength between premises and conclusions of arguments. 1. Distinguish between Truth and Validity 2. Show the relevance of deductive and inductive reasoning to the study of Critical and Creative thinking.
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