Advantages disadavantages of sexual reproduction The advantage lies in the

Advantages disadavantages of sexual reproduction the

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Advantages/ disadavantages of sexual reproduction: The advantage lies in the ability to create genetic diversity in the offspring. The disadvantage is mainly the amount of time it takes to reproduce. Stages of mitosis and meiosis (able to identify from pictures) MITOSIS: Interphase Nucleolus and nuclear envelope are distinct. DNA is spooled out in chromatin. S Phase DNA is copied. Chromosome # stays the same. Chromatids are doubled. Prophase Beginning of mitosis. IPMAT. Molecular motors. Prepare to separate sister chromatids. Metaphase (middle)
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Chromosomes are lined up in the center of the cell. Attached by center centromere. Anaphase Chromatids have separated and moving toward the poles Telophase Close to having two daughter cells Cytokinesis The two cells separate from each other MIOSIS (how we produce eggs or sperm) Two rounds of nuclear division DIploid becomes haploid Crossing over: where genetic material is exchanged between paternal and maternal homolog. Swap genetic material. Two goals. Create gametes. Make sperm and eggs. Make them haploids, dividing the number of chromosomes in half. Jumble up the chromosomes so that each gamete has a unique mix of genes from each parent. MEIOSIS STAGES Prophase 1 CROSSING OVER OCCURS Chromosomes hace formed chiasma Metaphase Anaphase 1 Two copies of each. Going off to one side. One is more maternal or paternal. Telophase 1 Prophase II Metaphase II Separated Telophase II See membrane invaginate. Cytoplasm division. Meiosis is the basis of sexual reproduction. Creates a zygote. Gregor Mendel and laws of segregation and independent assortment Half of the gametes produced by an organism with the genotype Aa will receive the A allele, while half will receive the a allele. This is a demonstration of law of segregation Mendel's principle of independent assortment corresponds to which part of meiosis? random alignment of homologs on the metaphase plate during metaphase I Understand and apply test-cross
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Complementation test: You cross a homozygote from the 1st generation with a homozygote from the 2nd generation...if the offspring have the same mutant phenotype, the mutation is in the same gene...if offspring have a wildtype mutation, mutations are in different genes, Cross homozygote for the first mutation with a homozygote for the second mutation Figure out if offspring will have If the offspring have mutant phenotype, the mutations are in the same gene. If the offspring have wildtype phenotype, the mutations are in different genes. Evo-devo (understand the basic hierarchy and effect of genes that control development: maternal effect, Gap, pair-rule, Hox, Pax-6, etc…) maternal effect: determines initial anterior and posterior( bicoid and nanos)placement of body segments Gap genes: divides embryo into broad zones(big regions) pair rule: subdivides anterior and posterior genes;alternating pair segments segment polarity genes: anterior posterior differentiation Hox: determines identities of anterior and posterior regions: each hox gene activates a set of downstream genes that confer the phenotype of a given body part Pax 6:important in the development of brain and eyes
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