Self confidence – ability to be certain about one’s competencies and skills BIG FIVE PERSONALITY MODEL OCEAN - Openness: tendency to be informed, creative, insightful and curious - Conscientiousness: tendency to be thorough, organized, controlled, dependable, and decisive - Extraversion: tendency to be sociable and assertive and to have positive energy - Agreeableness: tendency to be accepting, conforming, trusting and nurturing - Neuroticism: tendency to be depressed, anxious, insecure, vulnerable and hostile • Extraversion (most strongly associated w leadership), conscientiousness, openness, and low neuroticism = effective leaders • Emotional intelligence: has to do with our emotions (affective domain) and thinking (cognitive domain) and the interplay between the two o Consists of personal competencies: Self awareness, confidence, self-regulation, conscientiousness, and motivation o Consists of social competencies: Communication, conflict management • people who are more sensitive to their emotions and the impact of their emotions on others will be leaders who are more effective. HOW DOES TRAIT APPROACH WORK: • focuses exclusively on leader, not on followers or situation • concerned with what traits leaders exhibit and who has these traits • emphasizes a leader w certain traits is crucial to having effective leadership • used for personal awareness and development STRENGTHS OF TRAIT APPROACH: 1. Intuitively appealing: fits clearly w notion that leaders are the individuals who are out front and leading the way in society 2. Has a century of research to back it up 3. Highlights the leader component in the leadership process 4. Given us some benchmarks for what we need to look for if we want to be leaders
CRITICISMS OF TRAIT APPROACH 1. Failure to delimit a definitive list of leadership traits 2. Fails to take situations into account 3. Resulted in highly subjective determinations of the most important leadership traits (people may identify different things as crucial to leadership) 4. Failure to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes (does not address how leadership traits affect group members) 5. Not a useful approach for training and development for leadership CHAPTER 3 • Skills approach places emphasis on skills and abilities that can be learned and developed • Katz – skills of an effective administrator • Skills are what people can accomplish, traits are who leaders are • Three basic administrative skills: technical, human, and conceptual THREE SKILL APPROACH 1. Technical: knowledge about and proficiency in a specific type of work or activity - i.e. competencies in a specialized area, analytical ability, and the ability to use appropriate tools and techniques 2. Human: knowledge about and ability to work with people (aka people skills) - Being aware of one’s own perspective and perspective of others - Being sensitive to needs and motivations of others and using these when making decisions - Capacity to get along with others as you go about your work 3. Conceptual: ability to work with ideas and concepts.
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- Fall '13