2. Correlation is not the same as causation 3. Glyphosate: has been in the spotlight because it has a potential connection to cancer Video 3 1. Does glyphosate cause cancer? 1. Gilles-Eric Seralini says YES; french researcher that got a lot of publicity from a paper he published on GMO's causing cancer
2. His answer came from Lab animals, tumours were shown on animals that were fed the GMO corn 3. In fact, when scientists looked at the research, they found that the control group rats had tumours as well 4. In science, we don't pay much attention until studies are done again to ensure results made sense 5. He teamed up with a company and created Homeopathic products can counter the effects of glyphosate poisoning: complete BOGUS -- preposterous practice 6. Real concern of glyphosate for public: International Agency for Research on Cancer suggests that glyphosate is a "probable human carcinogen" 7. Based on a hazard analysis not a risk analysis 8. Hazard is the innate property of some substance to do damage under some condition whereas risk is a measure of whether or not the damage is done under realistic conditions 1. IARC classifies substances into 4 groups 1. Group 1: Carcinogenic to Humans 2. Group 2A: Probably Carcinogenic -- glyphosate 3. Group 2B: Possibly Carcinogenic 4. Group 3: Not classifiable 5. Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic -- only one chemical placed here: Caprolactam (used to make a type of nylon) 2. Risk = Hazard x Exposure 1. Example: sunlight; hazardous -- we know that sunlight can cause cancer; it is possible to protect ourselves from exposure to sunlight and reduce the risk 2. Risk is the measure of what we are really exposed to and what harm it can do; whereas Hazard cannot change 3. Hazard is a property of the material 4. Glyphosate -- GROUP 2A 1. In large doses, in test animals, in some condition, can trigger cancer 2. Doesn't mean that it can do so in people 3. 2A: hot beverages (drinking hot tea) -- causes the increase of esophogial cancer 4. 2A: red meat, baked goods, because of the occurrence of acrylamide (forms under high temp in baking) 5. 2A: profession of a hair dresser 6. Bacon is in group 1 -- established carcinogen 1. Dose is important 2. Dosage is not reflected in the arguments put forward from people that say we are in great risk of being exposed to Glyphosate 1. Glyphosate 1. People are being told to use safe measures 2. RoundUp in food is very different from what would be the consequence of breathing in this chemical when applying it 3. True that due to our sophisticated technology, we can detect substances down to parts per billion; one second in 32 years 4. Just because something can be detected doesn't mean it can do harm!!!! Video 4 1. What is our exposure to glyphosate? 2. We can measure glyphosate in urine 3. Determined that the acceptable daily intake (ADI) is 0.5 mg/kg body weight 4. ADI = 4 mg/L urine 5. People produce 1-3 micrograms/L and it is the 1/1200th of ADI 6. "Unlikely to be carcinogenic" 1. IARC is based on hazard while EFSA looks at risk
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