Another exercise you may find helpful is to simply summarize the collective functions happening within each major segment of the alimentary canal and contributions by its accessory organs. E.g., did you notice that the duodenum of the small intestine receives fluids from these accessory organs: liver, gall bladder and pancreas? See Figure 21.6, for example. GI System Ingest à digest (broken down) à absorption à motility à secretion ** fig 21.12 motility à peristaltic contractions move food forward segmental contractions à mixing food , close contact to villi for nutrient absorpotion Stomach has gastric pits Mucous neck cells à protect stomach from acid Parietal cells à release HCL and intrinsic factor (w/out this can’t absorb vitamin B12) Chief cells à release pepsinogen (converted to pepsin active form to break down proteins once hits stomach acid Small intestines Villi to increase surface area for max nutrient absorption Enzymes breaking down fats and proteins found in pancreas Large intestine A lot of water absorption and flora (bacteria microbiome) Blood flow in digestive system goes to liver first *** to decide what to do with nutrients Somatostatin is a general inhibitory hormone Exam 3 Questions 1. Erythrocytes contribute most to blood viscosity 2. MAP=1/3(Systolic-Diastolic) +diastolic 3. Hydrostatic ( at arteriolar end) – osmotic pressure = fluid movement, if it is positive that is filtration out of the capillary 4. tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) activates an enzyme that dissolves fibrin of an existing clot, reducing the clot size 5. Capillary blood flow is increased when the radius of the resistance vessels is increased 6. Getting vaccinated is active immunity because you are given antigens 7. If you have A blood type that does not mean you have A antigens on the surface of RBC *** blood handout 8. Vital capacity is all the air you can have after maximal inhalation 9. Carbaminohemoglobin is formed when alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin bind to CO2 10. Receptors sense H+ in CSF for regulating CNS respiratory center neurons 11. For blood CO2 transport Cl- will shift our of the RBC at the lungs and into RBC at systemic tissue in exchange for HCo3-
12. Airway pressure is 0 at the end of inhalation or before exhalation 13. Look up vital capacity** 14. PCO2 in pulmonary capillariesis less than po2 in alveolar air 15. Pco2 un blood entering systemic capillaries is greater tan pco2 in the air 16. Po2 in blood entering the systemic capillaries is greater than po2 in the blood entering the pulmonary capillaries 17. Pco2 in the blood leaving the capillaries is equal to pco2 in the blood entering the systemic capillaries 18. Gamma globulins are not filtered in the renal corpuscle a. Not filtered because too large to pass through the barrier layers of the glomerulus and podyctes 19. glomerular filtrate and the urea are not the same 20. macula densa in the nephron regulates NA+ and Cl- in filtrate fluid within the DCT 21. Increase in Glomeular Flow Rate by efferent arteriole vasodilation
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- Fall '08
- Physiology, cells, ECF, o Na