2 consider alternative concepts or alternative

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2. Consider alternative concepts or alternative definitions to concepts. 3. Make sure you are using concepts with care and precision. 7. All reasoning contains   Inference  or  Interpretations   by which we draw  Conclusion  and  give meaning to data. 1 Infer only what the evidence implies. 2 Check inferences for their consistency with each other. 3 Identify assumptions which lead you to your inferences. 7 All reasoning leads somewhere or has  Implication  and  Consequences. 1 Trace the implications and consequences that follow from your reasoning. 2 Search for negative as well as positive implications. 3 Consider all possible consequences With the above in mind, let us now turn our attention to some intellectual standards which constitute  a necessary condition to proper and clear thinking- the Tools of Evaluation 1.3  SUBTOPIC 2: Critical and Creative Thinking Tools of Evaluation b) Critical Thinking Tools of Evaluation Critical and creative thinking tools of evaluation are also referred to as Universal intellectual  standards. These are standards which must be applied to thinking whenever one is interested in  checking the quality of reasoning about a problem, issue, or situation. To think critically entails  having command of these standards, being able to make sound decisions, being able to pose  questions which probe our thinking- questions which hold us accountable for our thinking, questions  which, through disciplined consistency becomes internalised as questions we need to ask ourselves. The ultimate goal, then, is for these questions to become infused in our thinking, forming part of our  inner voice, which then guides us to better reasoning. While there are a number of universal  standards, the following are the most significant: a)       Clarity:  Could you elaborate further on that point? Could you express that point in another  way? Could you give me an illustration? Could you give me an example? Clarity is the gateway  standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant. In fact,  we cannot tell anything about it because we don't yet know what it is saying. For example, the  question, "What is thinking?" seems to be unclear. In order to address the question adequately,  however, we would need to have a clearer understanding of what the person asking the question is  considering the "problem" to be. A clearer question might be "What can the teachers of critical and  creative thinking do to ensure that the process both succeeds and answers to the needs of different  disciplines and across the curriculum?" b)       Accuracy:  Is that really true? How could we check that? How could we find out if that is true? 
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  • Fall '16
  • Theory of multiple intelligences, fairmindedness, Wambari, Thinking Tools, Howard Gardiner

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