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PHRM 514 - Asthma - Fall 2012 (1)

What was the estimated cost associated with asthma in

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What was the estimated cost associated with asthma in the U.S. in 2007? 1. $15 million 2. $56 million 3. $5 billion 4. $15 billion 5. $56 billion Vital Signs Asthma in the U.S.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/VitalSigns/Asthma/index.html Updated May 3, 2011. Accessed October 16, 2011.
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Social and Economic Burden in the U.S. Ambulatory care visits (2007) 17 million people Hospital discharges (2009) 479,000 Average hospital length of stay (2009) 3.4 days n About 53% of those with asthma had an asthma attack in 2008 n About 3,388 deaths/year (2009 data)80 to 90% preventable Fast Stats Asthma. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/asthma.htm. Updated June 19, 2012. Accessed October 10, 2012. Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy a pathophysiologic approach. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011:439-448.
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Pathophysiology Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/ asthgdln.pdf. Published August 28, 2007. Accessed October 16, 2011. Bronchoconstriction Allergen or irritant induced Airway edema Airway hyper- responsiveness Airway remodeling Airway cells Inflammatory mediators
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Airway Obstruction n Recurrent n Caused by ¡ Bronchoconstriction ¡ Airway edema ¡ Airway hyperreponsiveness ¡ Airway remodeling Kelly HW, Sorkness CA. Asthma. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy a pathophysiologic approach. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011:439-448. Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma. http://www.ginasthma.org/. Updated 2011. Accessed October 10, 2012. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.pdf. Published August 28, 2007. Accessed October 16, 2011.
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Bronchoconstriction n Bronchial smooth muscle contraction that quickly narrows the airway n Bronchoconstriction occurs to narrow airways in response to varying stimuli including allergens/antigens or irritants ¡ Allergic reaction ¡ Aspirin and NSAIDS ¡ Exercise ¡ Cold air ¡ Stress n Airway narrowing and airflow interference lead to clinical symptoms Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/ asthgdln.pdf. Published August 28, 2007. Accessed October 16, 2011.
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Allergen Induced Bronchoconstriction: Early Phase Allergic Reaction 1.
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